Presentation on theme: "The process of breathing is called RESPIRATION"— Presentation transcript:
1The process of breathing is called RESPIRATION UNIT 1 - InformationThe process of breathing is called RESPIRATIONFUNCTION: Supplies O2 to enable ENERGY to be releasedRemoves CO2 from the bodyStructures of the respiratory system and gaseous exchangeAir containing O2 is INHALED into the lungsAir containing CO2 is EXHALED from the lungs
2UNIT 1 - Information Air enters through the NOSE and MOUTH. Passes down the TRACHEA into the BRONCI (through the BRONCHIOLES), and ends up at tiny air sacs called ALVEOLI.Each alveoli has thin walls and is surrounded by a blood vessel called a CAPILLARY.GASEOUS EXCHANGE takes place - O2 is diffused into the blood and travels in the blood to the working muscles. At the same time CO2 diffuses into the alveoli and is breathed out.To draw air into the body (INSPIRATION) the lungs must increase in size. This occurs because the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES and the DIAPHRAGM contract. This decreases the air pressure inside the lungs, causing air to rush in.To expel air from the body (EXPIRATION) the lungs return to their original size (relax) – which decreases the size of the thoracic cavity. The decreased volume and increased air pressure in the lungs forces air out.
3UNIT 1 - InformationDeoxygenated blood brings carbon dioxide from the body cells to the alveoliOxygen is breathed inCarbon dioxide is breathed outOxygenated blood carries oxygen to the body cellsCarbon dioxide diffuses through the walls of the capillaries into the alveoliOxygen diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the capillaries
4MINUTE VOLUME = TIDAL VOLUME × RESPIRATORY RATE UNIT 1 - InformationLUNG CAPACITYRESPIRATORY RATE – How many breaths taken in 1 minuteTIDAL VOLUME – Amount of air taken in or out with EACH BREATHMINUTE VOLUME – Amount of air breathed in, in 1 minuteMINUTE VOLUME = TIDAL VOLUME × RESPIRATORY RATEAs exercise intensity increases so does minute volumeThis is to supply the body with sufficient oxygen for increased energy demandsThere is also a need to dispel more CO2 as exercise gets harderMinute volume can increase from around 6 litres/min at rest to 28 litres/min for exerciseSome elite athletes can go up to 36 litres/minWhen exercise stops or becomes less intense their minute volume will slowly adjust back down accordingly
5TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY = VITAL CAPACITY + RESIDUAL VOLUME UNIT 1 - InformationLUNG CAPACITYThe extra oxygen needed with intense exercise is provided by:Breathing more deeplyIncreasing rate of breathingBothVITAL CAPACITY – is the maximum amount of air that can be breathed out after breathing in as deeply as you can.RESIDUAL VOLUME – the lungs are never completely empty, the air that is left is the residual volume.Practical ApplicationTOTAL LUNG CAPACITY = VITAL CAPACITY + RESIDUAL VOLUME
6An example of a spirometer trace: UNIT 1 - InformationLUNG VOLUMESUnder normal resting conditions, we breathe approximately 16 times per minute – taking in 0.5 litres of air (TIDAL VOLUME)During vigorous exercise, the breathing rate may exceed 40 breaths per minute – taking in 2.2 litres of air.Information/DiscussionAn example of a spirometer trace:Practical Application63.431.5
7VO2 will vary depending on the demands of the activity UNIT 1 - InformationVO2 MaxIt is the maximum amount of oxygen taken in, transported and used in one minuteVO2 will vary depending on the demands of the activityThe fitter athlete will be able to make much greater use of oxygen that is inhaled – a better MAXIMUM AEROBIC CAPACITYA predictor of aerobic fitness
8Effects of Exercise on the System UNIT 1 - InformationEffects of Exercise on the SystemAlthough breathing becomes more rapid during exercise, thespeed with which this occurs depends upon the amount of physical activity the individual is used to.After physical activity has taken place the sportsperson willcontinue to breathe deeply for some time. This is to remove any oxygen debt that may have developed. A well-trained, fitter person, however, will revert to normal breathing faster than an untrained person. This is due to their more efficient breathing mechanisms.
9Effects of Exercise on the System UNIT 1 - InformationEffects of Exercise on the SystemEffects of training on the respiratory system:the size of the chest increasesthe amount that the chest can expand increasesthe breathing rate at rest gets slowerthe capillary web around the alveoli is increasedmore alveoli are ready to pass gases to and from the bloodthe exchange of gas is improvedinspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes increasetidal volume increases during exercise
10UNIT 1 – Practical Application At rest, group can watch each other to identify depth and rate of breathing.At exercise: i) After 2 minutesii) After 15 minutesGroup can watch each other to identifychanges in depth and rate of breathingThis can initiate discussionTidal volume/ Minute volume/ Intensity of ExerciseMovement of abdomen/ chest - diaphragm
11UNIT 1 – Practical Application Use MULTI-STAGE FITNESS TEST as an indicator of Aerobic – capacity – explain VO2Mapping oxygen from the air via the lungs to muscles in the bodyDiscuss gaseous exchange with group
12Cardiovascular system Aerobic/ Anaerobic system Energy continuum UNIT 1 - LinksSkeletal systemMuscular systemCardiovascular systemAerobic/ Anaerobic systemEnergy continuumTraining zonesIntensity/ duration of exerciseShort term effects of exercise on the systems of the bodyLong term effects of exercise on the systems of the body
13UNIT 1 - Activity Complete the following by filling in the blanks: Every cell in the body needs to _____________ or it will die. Respiration means it needs totake in _____________ and get rid of _____________________. The cells need the______________ to produce _________________. The oxygen is breathed in as part of theair. The ________________ enters through the ______________________, passes downthe __________________ into the ______________ through the ________________ andfinally ends up at the tiny air sacs called ___________. Each ______________ has thin wallsand is surrounded by a thin blood vessel called a ________________. This helps the processof _______________________. This means that ____________________diffuses into the_____________ and travels in the blood to the working __________________. At the sametime ______________________ diffuses into the alveoli and is ________________.BRONCHIOXYGENGASEOUS EXCHANGEMUSCLESENERGYBREATHED OUTTRACHEANOSE & MOUTHAIROXYGENCAPILLARYBLOODBRONCHIOLESCARBON DIOXIDERESPIREALVEOLIOXYGENCARBON DIOXIDEALVEOLUS
14UNIT 1 - Activity Define the following terms: Respiratory Rate Tidal VolumeMinute VentilationInformation/DiscussionMake up a simple equation that links the three terms above.Practical ApplicationWhat is VO2 Max.What is the advantage to a football or hockey midfield player of having a high VO2 Max?
15UNIT 1 - ActivityComplete the following diagram for Gaseous Exchange.
16UNIT 1 - Activity Name TWO functions of the Respiratory System. How does the body provide the extra O2 needed for exercise?
17MECHANICS - Gaseous Exchange UNIT 1 – Key Facts/ GlossaryRESPIRATIONO2CO2FUNCTIONINOUTMECHANICS - Gaseous ExchangeTidal Volume - Minute Volume - Respiratory RateVital Capacity - Residual VolumeVO2 MaxEffects of Exercise on Respiratory System