Revolutions 5/13/13 http://mrmilewski.com OBJECTIVE: Examine “The Trigger Effect”. MCSS WH- 6.1.1 I. Administrative Stuff -Attendance II. CONNECTIONS -questions on episode#1 “The Trigger Effect” III. Homework due Monday 5/20/13 1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473 -Answer questions (1-7)* p.473 2.) Chapter#18 Review *Pick 4 questions of your choice NOTICE: Journals#11-20 Due Thursday May 16 th NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20 th
Revolutions 5/14/13 http://mrmilewski.com OBJECTIVE: Examine the American Revolution. MCSS WH-6.2.1 I. Journal#19pt.A -Examine the map on p.472 -Answer the map questions on p.472 II. Journal#19pt.B -notes on the Birth of the United States III. Homework Due Monday 5/20/13 1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473 -Answer questions (1-7)* p.473 2.) Chapter#18 Review *Pick 4 questions of your choice NOTICE: Journals#11-20 Due Thursday May 16 th NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20 th
The Seven Years War After the French & Indian War the colonists were taxed by Parliament for the cost of the war. The colonists were unhappy with this. Laws passed long before were enforced & new tax laws were passed. http://www.hist-sdc.com/fiw/images/cover.jpg
Boston Massacre In 1770, British soldiers in Boston open fired on a crowd throwing rocks & snowballs at them. In 1773, some colonists dressed up like Indians and threw tea in Boston Harbor. Parliament passed harsh laws to punish Massachusetts. The other 12 colonies took the side of those in Massachusetts. http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/0/09/350px-Boston_Massacre.jpg
War Begins In 1775, the shot heard round the world was the start of the revolution. On July 4, 1776, Congress sent a letter to King George III that basically said forget you we are independent. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ae/L exington_Minute_Man_relief_(Basha_Paeff)_- _Lexington,_MA.JPG/800px- Lexington_Minute_Man_relief_(Basha_Paeff)_- _Lexington,_MA.JPG
Battle of Saratoga The turning point in the war was when the American forces defeated the British at the Battle of Saratoga. This victory convinced the French to join the war on the side of the colonists. http://artfiles.art.com/images/-/Fauvel/The-Surrender- of-General-John-Burgoyne-at-the-Battle-of-Saratoga- 7th-October-1777-Giclee-Print-C12637774.jpeg
Treaty of Paris In 1781, with the help of the French (yes, the French were a world power at one point), Washington forced the surrender of the British at Yorktown. Two years later, American, French, and British signed the Treaty of Paris that officially ended the war. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Treaty_of_Paris_by_Benjamin_West_1783.jpg
Articles of Confederation The national document set up to run the country was too weak to govern the nation effectively. In 1787, the nations leaders met in Philadelphia and wrote the Constitution. This broad frame work incorporated the enlightenment ideas and has allowed for flexibility for the last 200 years. http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/constitution-day/images/constitution-01.gif
The Constitution It was the most liberal form of government when it became law in 1789. An elected representative body consisting of two houses was created to make laws. An executive was created that was elected as opposed to being heredity. These two parts, plus the judicial branch were derived from Montesquieu. The federal republic was supreme to the state governments. Later the first ten amendments were added, also known as the Bill of Rights it guaranteed citizens basic rights (Free speech, free press, trial by jury, and private property).
Revolutions 5/15/13 http://mrmilewski.com OBJECTIVE: Begin examination of the French Revolution. MCSS WH-6.2.1 I. Journal#20pt.A -Read “The French Revolution & Napoleon” p.478-479 -Answer the caption question on p.479 II. Journal #20pt.B -notes on the beginning of the French Revolution III. Homework Due Monday 5/20/13 1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473 -Answer questions (1-7)* p.473 2.) Chapter#18 Review *Pick 4 questions of your choice NOTICE: Journals#11-20 Due TOMORROW! NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20 th
Beginnings of Revolution In the year 1789 Réveillon was the casualty of his own ill-digested reflections on modern economics. “Since bread was the foundation of our national economy' its distribution should be deregulated, permitting lower prices. That in turn would allow lower wage costs, lower manufacturing prices and brisk consumption.” On April 28, 1789 his mansion was destroyed, all the wallpaper, glue, furniture and paintings were burned, except 2,000 bottles of wine. Réveillon and his family escaped. It was a bloody day, some say 25 other believe 900 people died. The rioters were savagely repressed, in an opening episode of the French Revolution. http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/4/47/350px-Montgolfiere_1783.jpg FYI: October 19, 1783, First hot air balloon launch from Reveillon’s garden.
The Riot Aristocrats returning from the race track through the neighborhood where the riot had occurred thought those responsible would be hung and life would continue as it had. WRONG!! By July, the hungry, unemployed, or poorly paid residents of Paris had taken up arms.
The French Revolution The corrupt governments of Louis, XIV, XV, & XVI had racked up a huge debt, and caused an economic crisis. The French people, were divided into 3 estates. The first two paid no taxes. http://www.wga.hu/art/c/callet/louis_16.jpg
The Estates The Old Regime 1 st estate – Clergy -owned 10% of the land & paid no taxes 2 nd estate – Nobility -owned 20% of the land & paid no taxes -had land, but no money 3 rd estate – “Peasants” 27 million people 98% of the population -divided into 3 parts
The 3 rd Estate Part I – The Bourgeoisie -prosperous middle class -were rich, but had no political power Part II – Rural Peasants -9 out of 10 people in France -some were rich land owners, but not part of the nobility -most were poor tenant farmers & day laborers Part III – Urban Workers -poorest members of French society -most were unemployed & turned to crime to survive
The Haves v. the Have-nots The Haves -1 st estate -2 nd estate -3 rd estate Pt.I The Have-nots -3 rd estate (most of pt.II) -3 rd estate pt.III
The Lives of the Have-nots Low wages meant the slightest rise in the price of bread could lead to starvation They paid all the taxes in the nation They had no voice in government They were technically free, but the nobility re-imposed manor fees. They had no right to hunt even the animals that ate their crops. http://www.alons.geomerx.com/grfx/MediaVault/product26_1739.jpg
Formula Social unrest (Enlightenment ideas) +financial crisis (deficit spending) REVOLUTION!
4 phases of the French Revolution National Assembly -(1789-1791) -Constitutional Monarchy Reign of Terror -(1792-1794) -Radical Phase Directory -(1795-1799) -Reaction to Extremism Age of Napoleon -(1799-1815) -Consolidation of Change http://www.revelation-today.com/FrRev02.jpg
Revolutions 5/16/13 http://mrmilewski.com OBJECTIVE: Examine the Old Regime & the beginnings of the French Revolution. MCSS WH-6.2.1 I. Administrative Stuff -attendance -Journals#11-20 Due! II. CONNECTIONS -questions on episode#2: III. Homework Due Monday 5/20/13 1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473 -Answer questions (1-7)* p.473 2.) Chapter#18 Review *Pick 4 questions of your choice NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20 th
Revolutions 5/17/13 http://mrmilewski.com OBJECTIVE: Examine the Old Regime & the beginnings of the French Revolution. MCSS WH-6.2.1 I. Journal#21pt.A -Examine the Chart on p.481 -Answer questions (1-2) p.481 II. Journal#21pt.B -notes on the French Revolution III. Homework Due Monday 5/20/13 1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473 -Answer questions (1-7)* p.473 2.) Chapter#18 Review *Pick 4 questions of your choice NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20 th
The French Economic Crisis The corrupt governments of Louis, XIV, XV, & XVI had racked up a huge debt, and caused an economic crisis. Louis XVI was weak and indecisive, but he made a wise decision in choosing Jacques Necker to be his financial advisor. He advised the king to cut spending and tax the 1 st & 2 nd estates. The nobles were outraged and forced the King to dismiss Necker. As the crisis got worse, the nobles pressured the king to summon the Estates General. http://www.swisscastles.ch/vaud/coppet/coppetphoto/JaNecker.JPG
Estates General The Estates General was similar to Parliament in England, but it never gained the same amount of power. The body was more advisory than governing. The Estates General called by Louis XVI was the first one to met for 175 years. The reasons why the King didn’t call them was because they were afraid that the throne could possibly lose some of the absolute power it had. Reform minded nobles sought to use the Estates General in 1789 to protect their privileged status, establish a Constitution, and make the king a limited monarch. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Ouverture_des_États_généraux_de_1789_à_Versailles.jpg
Estates General In May 1789, the Estates General met at Versailles. The estates brought their list of grievances (cahiers) to the meeting. Among the demands were fairer taxes, freedom of the press, and regular meetings of the Estates General. From the beginning, the Estates General was at an impasse over voting. Traditionally each estate met separately and voted as a group. This allowed the 1 st & 2 nd estate to out vote the 3 rd estate 2 to 1. The 3 rd estate wanted to meet together. http://artfiles.art.com/images/-/Jan-Bulthuis/Opening-of-the-Estates-General-at-Versailles-5th-May-1789-Giclee-Print-C12067230.jpeg
National Assembly The 3 rd estate took a bold step after weeks of stalemate. They formed the National Assembly, invited members of the other estates to join them in drawing up a constitution. A few reform minded clergy & nobles joined them. The National Assembly found themselves locked out of their meeting place. On June 20, 1789, they met on the tennis court and took the famous “Tennis Court Oath” in which they vowed not to disband until they had written a constitution. http://sourcebook.fsc.edu/history/tenniscourtoath.jpg
Problems Continue As the financial crisis worsened, the King brought back Necker in early July. Food shortages got worse as the full effect of the poor harvest of 1788 were felt. On July 14, 1789, 800 Parisians assembled outside the Bastille & demanded weapons & gunpowder because it was rumored that royal troops were going to occupy the capital. The commander of the Bastille refused and ordered the troops to open fire on the crowd. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist255/kat_anna/bastille_c%20copy1.jpg
Bastille Day After many people were killed, the mob was able to break through the defenses, kill the commander, 5 guards, and released some prisoners, but they found no weapons. When Louis XVI found out, he asked “Is this a revolt?” A noble replied, “No sire, it is a revolution.” This was seen as a major step against tyranny and is celebrated as a national holiday in France (July 14 th ) http://www.sophiesdiary.net/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/bastille-2.gif
Famine As the political crisis grew, the food shortage grew worse. Starving peasants from the countryside flocked to cities were they joined the growing ranks of the unemployed. Those with jobs had to spend up to 80% of their income on bread. Rumors of bands of starving peasants terrorizing townspeople and stories of troops seizing crops led to what became known as the “Great Fear” http://revolution-francaise.net/images/reichardt/15.jpg
Marquis de Lafayette Peasant attacks on nobles and riots in Paris led to the creation of the National Guard. The head of this mostly middle class militia that was organized in response to the arrival of royal troops in Paris was headed by the aristocrat Marquis de Lafayette. He was seen as a hero of the 2 nd & 3 rd estates. He had fought side by side with George Washington in the American Revolution. As a more radical group, the Paris Commune replaced the royalist city government whole neighborhoods could be mobilized for protests or violent actions. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Marquis_de_Lafayette_3.jpg/492px-Marquis_de_Lafayette_3.jpg
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity The uprisings and the storming of the Bastille forced the National Assembly to act. On August 4, 1789, the nobles voted to end their special privileges (manor dues, hunting, special legal status, & tax exempt status). In late August, the assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man. It was the first step to writing a constitution and was based on the American Declaration of Independence. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Declaration_of_Human_Rights.jpg