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French Revolution (1789-1799) I.Intro II.Background/Why a Revolution? A.Economy/Monarchy B.Estates General III.Freedom/Equality (1789-92) A.Taking Action.

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Presentation on theme: "French Revolution (1789-1799) I.Intro II.Background/Why a Revolution? A.Economy/Monarchy B.Estates General III.Freedom/Equality (1789-92) A.Taking Action."— Presentation transcript:

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2 French Revolution ( ) I.Intro II.Background/Why a Revolution? A.Economy/Monarchy B.Estates General III.Freedom/Equality ( ) A.Taking Action B.New Constitution & Calendar IV.Terror ( ) A.War B.Robespierre V.Directory ( ) VI.Evaluation Key Terms National Assembly Bastille Great Fear “Rights of Man” Committee on Public Safety “Levee en masse”

3 French Revolution Themes (Turning Point In Europe’s History) It was a “popular” Revolution (involved common people angry at the monarchy). It turned violent & bloody. It came full-circle.

4 Why? Government’s Debt –French/Indian War & American Revolution –Tax system Economic Crisis: Poor harvests in 1780s—riots Anger at monarchy:

5 Tax System In France Nobles & Clergy-did not pay taxes Who was left…? –Peasants & Bourgeoisie Those with the least wealth paid the most in taxes Corvée: Peasants were required to work days of unpaid labor for the state (roads, bridges, etc)

6 French Monarchy: Symbol for Anger Louis XVI ( ) Marie Antoinette ( )

7 French Revolution Phase I: Freedom & Equality ( ) Slogan: Liberty, Equality & Fraternity

8 First Step to Revolution The King (Louis XVI) wanted to increase taxes & nobles refused to pay. Estates General (French Parliament) was called into session—it had not met since 1614!

9 Estates General But the “Masses”& Bourgeoisie objected to unequal representation. So, they formed their own group: National Assembly

10 Nobles/Lords: 1-5% Clergy: 5-10% Middle Class: 5-10% (Bourgeoisie) The “Masses” 75-85%

11 National Assembly “The Masses” & Bourgeoisie met and Declared they would not disband until a new constitution was adopted! Tennis Court Oath

12 Storming the Bastille (July, 1789) 1.Rioting in Paris led about 800 common citizens to attack the Bastille. 2.The people took the Bastille, but 98 civilians died & became martyrs. 3.Turning point: Average citizens sparked a mass Revolution.

13 Storming the Bastille (July, 1789) Lafayette gave this key to George Washington it’s now on display at Mount Vernon Key to the Bastille

14 Great Fear (August, 1789) 1.Rumor: nobles were going to destroy crops in rural areas to hurt Revolutionaries. 2.Peasants looted & destroyed noble’s homes. 3.Result = nobility & clergy renounced ALL traditional privileges.

15 Common People Destroy The Old Order

16 “Rights of Man” (1789) 1.Every man is guaranteed natural rights and should be treated equally. Philosophical Statement:

17 New Calendar Provisions –1789 would be the year 1 (a brand new start) –12 months in year –30 days in each month – 3 weeks in each month – 1 day each week a holiday (1 every 10 days)

18 New Constitution* (1790) 1.Established a Constitutional Monarchy: a)Louis XVI-monarch b)But a National Legislature would have the most power 2.The Old Regime was gone; society would be based on freedom & equality. *Just about all adult males could vote.

19 French Revolution Phase II: Terror ( )

20 Reign of Terror ( ) To wage war, the National Legislature gave tremendous power to a committee of its members. WAR! France vs. rest of Europe

21 Committee On Public Safety Leader of the Committee Robespierre ( )

22 Committee On Public Safety Mobilized entire defense of France. Instituted “Levee en masse.” –ALL in society were required to contribute to the war effort. Any & all dissent was CRUSHED.

23 Guillotine Use was popularized by Dr. Joseph Guillotin Estimated 25, ,000 executions ( ) 500,000 were imprisoned

24 Louis XVI Executed (January, 1793)

25 Marie Antoinette Executed (October, 1793)

26 Committee On Public Safety Mobilized entire defense of France. Instituted “Levee en masse.” –ALL in society were required to contribute to the war effort. Any & all dissent was CRUSHED Their actions demonstrated the TERROR & how the Revolution turned violent & bloody.

27 French Revolution Phase III: The Directory ( ) (Conservative Reaction)

28 Directory ( ) 1.Created by the adoption of another new Constitution—to prevent another “TERROR.” Who can vote?—landowners only 2.Power would be held by Five Consuls (one was Napoleon Bonaparte) Directory was abolished & Napoleon became the sole leader of France.

29 Revolution Comes Full-Circle Revolution’s Goal: destroy the monarchy & Old Regime Result: one ruler (Emperor) All male landowners could vote, society was more equal; but not full “freedom & equality” for all

30 French Revolution Themes (Turning Point In Europe’s History) It was a “popular” Revolution (involved common people angry at the monarchy). It turned violent & bloody. It came full-circle.

31 Evaluation… Overall, was the Revolution positive or negative for the people of France?

32 French Revolution ( ) I.Intro II.Background/Why a Revolution? A.Economy/Monarchy B.Estates General III.Freedom/Equality ( ) A.Taking Action B.New Constitution & Calendar IV.Terror ( ) A.War B.Robespierre V.Directory ( ) VI.Evaluation Key Terms National Assembly Bastille Great Fear “Rights of Man” Committee on Public Safety “Levee en masse”


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