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17 Nov 20061 EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF AIRBORNE COCAINE GENERATED DURING THE MANUFACTURE OF DRUG DOG TRAINING AIDS S. Smallets Jr., MS, CIH NAVMEDCEN Portsmouth.

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Presentation on theme: "17 Nov 20061 EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF AIRBORNE COCAINE GENERATED DURING THE MANUFACTURE OF DRUG DOG TRAINING AIDS S. Smallets Jr., MS, CIH NAVMEDCEN Portsmouth."— Presentation transcript:

1 17 Nov EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF AIRBORNE COCAINE GENERATED DURING THE MANUFACTURE OF DRUG DOG TRAINING AIDS S. Smallets Jr., MS, CIH NAVMEDCEN Portsmouth

2 17 Nov Military Working Dog Program Part of DoD war against drugs Established at Lackland AF Base, Texas in 1990 Provides training for drug detection dogs

3 17 Nov Military Working Dog Program Training for dogs and handlers requires training aids Training aids are ventilated canisters containing one of the common street drugs Prepared exclusively by NCIS Regional Forensic Laboratory (NCIS RFL)

4 17 Nov Personnel Exposure to Drugs Several researchers have looked at passive cocaine exposures in occupational settings Dermal absorption during application as local anesthetic. L.S. Fitzmaurice et al. TAC use and absorption of cocaine in a pediatric emergency department. Ann. Emergency Med. 19: (1990) Handling contaminated money. M. A. ElSohly. Urinalysis and casual handling of marijuana and cocaine. J. Anal. Toxicol. 15:46 (1991) Handling large quantities of cocaine. S. D. Le et. al. Occupational exposure to cocaine involving crime laboratory personnel. J. Forensic Sci 37: (1992) Laboratory personnel preparing cocaine training aids for a military working dog program. J. M. Gelhausen et al Urine Analysis of laboratory personnel preparing cocaine training aids for a military working dog program. J. Anal. Toxicol. 25: (2001)

5 17 Nov Personnel Exposure to Drugs Drug screening (urinalysis) of NCIS RFL personnel by Navy Drug Screening Laboratory (NDSL) between December 1999 and January of 233 urine samples had detectable levels of benzoylecgonine (BZE) The possibility of a positive drug test due to on-the-job exposure can be a concern

6 17 Nov Personnel Exposure to Drugs Issues Legal consequences could arise for laboratory employees participating in a DoD civilian drug testing program Uncertainty of health effects of long term low level exposure to various street drugs is also of concern Navy Drug Screening Lab (NDSL) and NCIS RFL requested an IH evaluation of cocaine exposure resulting from manufacture of training aids

7 17 Nov IH Exposure Assessment Quantify levels of cocaine in the air-Baseline Personnel preparing training aids Other lab and administrative personnel Evaluate use of PPE and housekeeping Determine urine BZE as a marker for cocaine exposure Implement procedural changes to minimize occupational exposure Determine effectiveness of changes-Followup

8 17 Nov IH Exposure Assessment -Air Sampling No NIOSH/OSHA method for sampling cocaine in air “Occupational Exposure to Cocaine Involving Crime Lab Personnel”, Journal of Forensic Sciences, JFSCA, Vol. 37, No 4, July 1992 pp Impingers – 15 ml water with 30 mg ascorbic acid; sample at 1 l/m Analysis done by GC-MS by NDSL Jacksonville, FL

9 17 Nov Sampling Train

10 17 Nov Impingers with trap

11 17 Nov No OSHA or ACGIH OEL Personal Breathing Zone air sampling 4 chemists engaged in training aid manufacture General Area air sampling 3 locations Urinalysis-BZE Chemists, other lab workers, administrative personnel Surface sampling (cobalt thiocyanate) and observation Work surfaces Respirators Ventilation-Lab Hoods IH Exposure Assessment-Method

12 17 Nov Reception* Laboratory* Lab Hood Work Bench (Sealing) Lab Bench (Weighing and Stuffing Trial 1) Latents Office* NCIS Forensic Lab Layout Latents Lab Instrument Room Lab Director Senior Chemist * GA Sample location

13 17 Nov NCIS RF Laboratory

14 17 Nov Manufacture Process 2 steps Preparation (1 chemist) Un-package seized cocaine Weigh and grind in mortar and pestle Fabrication (3 chemists) 5, 3, 2, 1 g quantities are weighed using plastic tray and scale (Weighing) Material is put into bindles (Stuffing) Bindles are placed in metal container (Sealing) 400 – 500 grams of cocaine processed

15 17 Nov Characterize Exposure- Tasks - Preparation Confiscated Material Unpacking

16 17 Nov Characterize Exposure- Tasks - Preparation

17 17 Nov Characterize Exposure- Tasks - Preparation WeighingGrinding

18 17 Nov Exposure Assessment Respirators, Skin contact

19 17 Nov IH Exposure Assessment -Housekeeping

20 17 Nov Characterize Exposure- Tasks Fabrication Weighing Setup Stuffing Setup Lab bench covered with brown paper

21 17 Nov Characterize Exposure- Tasks Fabrication Weighing Scale Plastic tray 5, 3, 2, or 1 gram quantities

22 17 Nov Characterize Exposure- Tasks Fabrication Stuffing Bindles are constructed from pre- folded filter paper (Whatman #4) Material is poured into bindles using a funnel Stapled

23 17 Nov Characterize Exposure- Tasks Fabrication Sealing Bindles are placed in 3 oz tin seamless slipcover cans. Cans have 7 pre-punched holes for ventilation of substance odor Can is secured with lead disc seals

24 17 Nov Characterize Exposure- Tasks Fabrication Metal containers then placed in mailing envelopes

25 17 Nov Worker IDTask/ Sample Date Sample Time (Minutes) Result (mg/m 3 ) 8 hr-TWA (mg/m 3 ) WWeighing Sealing Stuffing Weighing 10/23/ HStuffing Weighing Sealing Stuffing 10/23/ ASealing Stuffing Weighing Sealing 10/23/ GGrinding 10/22/ PBZ Results Trial 1

26 17 Nov PBZ Results Trial 1 by Task Weighing (mg/m3) Stuffing (mg/m3) Sealing (mg/m3) Preparation (mg/m3) Average

27 17 Nov Hr TWA’s and Urine BZE Trial 1 Worker ID 8 Hr TWA (mg/m3) Highest BZE (ng/ml) W H A0.0269ND G others tested for BZE, 2 < 12 ng/ml and 7 ND

28 17 Nov Trial 1 General Area Samples Sample Date TaskLocationSample Time (minutes) Result (mg/m 3 ) 10/22/01BackgroundLatents32< /22/01BackgroundReception31< /22/01BackgroundLaboratory32< /22/01GrindingLatents /22/01GrindingReception45< /22/01GrindingLaboratory /23/01Make Trg AidLatents /23/01Make Trg AidReception105< /23/01Make Trg AidLaboratory General Ventilation not operating

29 17 Nov Recommendations Reduce amount of dust in breathing zone Dust not well controlled, observation showed dust on surfaces Perform preparation and manufacturing tasks in the available lab hoods instead of lab bench Prevent inhalation of dust that reaches breathing zone Inside of respirators tested positive using cobalt thiocyanate, variety of respirators, no training, no fit testing Obtain NIOSH approved respirators, training and fit testing Prevent absorption of cocaine by skin contact Observation showed opportunity for skin contact Avoid skin contact, don’t roll up lab coat sleeves

30 17 Nov Modified Preparation Set up Average face velocity 80 fpm

31 17 Nov Modified Preparation

32 17 Nov Modified Weighing and Stuffing fpm Hood interfered with balance, ventilation used intermittently

33 17 Nov Sealing

34 17 Nov PBZ Results Trial 2 by Task Weighing (mg/m3) Stuffing (mg/m3) Sealing (mg/m3) Preparation (mg/m3) Average

35 17 Nov Hr TWA’s and Urine BZE Trial 2 Worker ID 8 Hr TWA (mg/m3) Highest BZE (ng/ml) W0.0116ND H0.0181<12 A G

36 17 Nov Worker IDTask/ Sample Date Sample Time (Minutes) Result (mg/m 3 ) 8 hr-TWA (mg/m 3 ) WSealing Stuffing Weighing Sealing 02/14/ HWeighing Sealing Stuffing Weighing 02/14/ AStuffing Weighing Sealing Stuffing 02/14/ GGrinding 02/14/ PBZ Results Trial 2

37 17 Nov WeighingStuffingSealingGrinding Trial Trial Difference80%82%38%40%

38 17 Nov Task Air Sample Average Concentration Comparison

39 17 Nov Chemist 8 Hr TWA Comparison

40 17 Nov Urine BZE Comparison All values =1 were ND 12 LOD

41 17 Nov General Area Sample Comparison Airborne Cocaine (mg/m3) BaselineFollow-up AreaBackgroundGrindingMk Trg AidBackgroundGrindingMk Trg Aid Reception<0.0022<0.0016< Latents< Lab< < Baseline- HVAC inoperable Follow-up- HVAC operating

42 17 Nov hr TWA vs Urinalysis Worker ID 8 Hr TWA (mg/m3) Trial 1 8 Hr TWA (mg/m3) Trial 2 BZE (ng/ml) Trial 1 BZE (ng/ml) Trial 2 W ND H <12 A ND13 G

43 17 Nov Conclusions-Thoughts Consistent with previous reports i.e. occupational exposure to cocaine can lead to positive BZE Noted reductions in BZE suggest that improved use of PPE particularly respirators and the increased use of ventilation can be effective in mitigating occupational exposure

44 17 Nov Acknowledgements H. R. Hayes, CIH (NMCP) D. C. Brunick (NEHC) D. L. Deary (NMCP) LT. J. Gehlhausen (NDSL) J. A. Given (NCISRFL)


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