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Health Hazard Evaluations of Worker Exposures During Cement Tile Roofing Operations Ronald M. Hall, MS, CIH National Institute for Occupational Safety.

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Presentation on theme: "Health Hazard Evaluations of Worker Exposures During Cement Tile Roofing Operations Ronald M. Hall, MS, CIH National Institute for Occupational Safety."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Hazard Evaluations of Worker Exposures During Cement Tile Roofing Operations Ronald M. Hall, MS, CIH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Applied Research and Technology Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this presentation have not been formally disseminated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and should not be construed to represent any agency determination or policy

2 Background NIOSH received three union Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) requests NIOSH received three union Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) requests The requests listed dust, silica, and noise as potential hazards during cement tile roofing operations The requests listed dust, silica, and noise as potential hazards during cement tile roofing operations

3 Cement Tile Roof

4 Cutting of Cement Tiles

5 Roofing Operations

6 Worker Cutting Tile

7

8

9 Sampling Strategy Personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples for respirable and total dust, and respirable silica (quartz) were collected during residential roofing operations Personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples for respirable and total dust, and respirable silica (quartz) were collected during residential roofing operations –Saw operators –General working roofers Noise dosimeters were used to collect full-shift noise exposure measurements Noise dosimeters were used to collect full-shift noise exposure measurements Sampled for two or three consecutive days Sampled for two or three consecutive days

10 Evaluation Criteria NIOSH REL is 0.05 mg/m 3 NIOSH REL is 0.05 mg/m 3 ACGIH TLV for Respirable Silica is mg/m 3 ACGIH TLV for Respirable Silica is mg/m 3 OSHA General Industry Standard OSHA General Industry Standard PEL = 10 mg/m3 PEL = 10 mg/m3 % Silica + 2 % Silica + 2 OSHA Construction Standard OSHA Construction Standard PEL =250 mppcf PEL =250 mppcf % Silica + 5 % Silica + 5 apply a conversion factor of 0.1 mg/m 3 per mppcf Noise Noise –OSHA 90 dBA for 8 hours per day (5dB exchange rate) –NIOSH and ACGIH® 85 dBA for 8 hours per day (3dB exchange rate)

11 PBZ Sampling for 1 st HHE 2 consecutive days of sampling was conducted PBZ samples were collected – –During roofing activities – –At home sites where employees were cutting and laying roof tiles throughout the day 16 full-shift PBZ air samples were collected for respirable dust and silica 19 full-shift PBZ air samples for total dust were collected over the 2 days 8 full-shift noise exposure measurements were collected on workers

12 PBZ Sampling for 2 nd HHE 2 consecutive days of sampling was conducted PBZ samples were collected – –During roofing activities – –At home sites where employees were cutting and laying roof tiles throughout the day 10 PBZ air samples were collected for respirable dust and silica 8 PBZ air samples for total dust were collected over the 2 days 5 full-shift noise exposure measurements were collected on workers

13 PBZ Sampling for 3 rd HHE 3 consecutive days of sampling was conducted PBZ samples were collected – –During roofing activities – –At home sites where employees were cutting and laying roof tiles throughout the day 8 PBZ air samples were collected for respirable dust and silica 9 PBZ air samples for total dust were collected 7 full-shift noise exposure measurements were collected on workers

14 Results - 1 st HHE Respirable quartz concentrations Respirable quartz concentrations –Ranged from trace levels (between LOD and LOQ) to 0.33 mg/m 3 Respirable dust concentrations Respirable dust concentrations –Ranged from 0.23 mg/m 3 to 2.3 mg/m 3 –Samples contained 9.5% to 17.6% Quartz Total dust concentrations Total dust concentrations –Ranged from 0.68 mg/m 3 to 13 mg/m 3

15 Summary of Results - 1 st HHE 12 out of 16 TWAs for respirable silica indicated concentrations exceeding the general industry OSHA PEL 12 out of 16 TWAs for respirable silica indicated concentrations exceeding the general industry OSHA PEL 14 out of 16 TWAs for respirable silica indicated concentrations exceeding NIOSH and ACGIH criteria 14 out of 16 TWAs for respirable silica indicated concentrations exceeding NIOSH and ACGIH criteria 5 of 8 TWAs noise values exceeded the OSHA Action Level (AL), and 3 of 8 exceeded the OSHA PEL 5 of 8 TWAs noise values exceeded the OSHA Action Level (AL), and 3 of 8 exceeded the OSHA PEL All TWA noise values exceeded the NIOSH REL All TWA noise values exceeded the NIOSH REL

16 Results - 2 nd HHE Respirable quartz concentrations Respirable quartz concentrations –Ranged from 0.03 mg/m 3 to 1.1 mg/m 3 Respirable dust concentrations Respirable dust concentrations –Ranged from 0.53 mg/m 3 to 7.1 mg/m 3 –Samples contained 11.5% to 18.5% quartz Total dust concentrations Total dust concentrations –ranged from 1.3 mg/m 3 to 22 mg/m 3

17 Summary of Results – 2 nd HHE 1 TWA exceeded the OSHA PEL for total dust 1 TWA exceeded the OSHA PEL for total dust 4 out of 7 TWAs exceeded the general industry OSHA PEL and 3 exceeded the construction industry OSHA PEL for respirable silica 4 out of 7 TWAs exceeded the general industry OSHA PEL and 3 exceeded the construction industry OSHA PEL for respirable silica 6 out of 7 TWAs for respirable silica also indicated concentrations exceeding NIOSH and ACGIH criteria 6 out of 7 TWAs for respirable silica also indicated concentrations exceeding NIOSH and ACGIH criteria 3 out of 5 TWA noise values exceeded the OSHA AL 3 out of 5 TWA noise values exceeded the OSHA AL All TWA noise values exceeded the NIOSH REL All TWA noise values exceeded the NIOSH REL

18 Results - 3 rd HHE Respirable quartz concentrations Respirable quartz concentrations –Ranged from 0.06 to 0.27 mg/m 3 Respirable dust exposures Respirable dust exposures –Ranged from 0.32 mg/m 3 to 1.8 mg/m 3 –Samples contained 12.9% to 21.7% quartz Total dust concentrations Total dust concentrations –Ranged from 1.8 mg/m 3 to 12 mg/m 3

19 Summary of Results – 3 rd HHE 7 of 8 TWAs for respirable dust exceeded the general industry OSHA PEL and 2 exceeded the construction industry OSHA PEL for respirable silica 7 of 8 TWAs for respirable dust exceeded the general industry OSHA PEL and 2 exceeded the construction industry OSHA PEL for respirable silica 7 of 8 TWAs for respirable silica indicated concentrations exceeding NIOSH and ACGIH occupational criteria 7 of 8 TWAs for respirable silica indicated concentrations exceeding NIOSH and ACGIH occupational criteria 2 TWA noise values exceeded the OSHA PEL and all 7 exceeded the OSHA action limit (AL) 2 TWA noise values exceeded the OSHA PEL and all 7 exceeded the OSHA action limit (AL) All TWA noise values exceeded the NIOSH REL All TWA noise values exceeded the NIOSH REL

20 Overall Summary for the 3 HHEs General OSHA Standard for Respirable Silica General OSHA Standard for Respirable Silica –Data indicates 74% of the TWAs exceeded this standard Construction OSHA Standard for Respirable Silica Construction OSHA Standard for Respirable Silica –Data indicates 33% of the TWAs exceeded this standard NIOSH and ACGIH® Criteria NIOSH and ACGIH® Criteria –Data indicates 87% of the respirable silica TWAs were exceeding this criteria Noise Noise –25% of the full-shift measurements exceeded the OSHA PEL –75% of the full-shift measurements exceeded the OSHA AL –100% of the full-shift measurements exceeded the NIOSH REL

21 Conclusion & Recommendations Workers were overexposed to respirable silica and noise Workers were overexposed to respirable silica and noise Provide training Provide training –workplace hazards –respirators –hearing protection –dust control measures Implement a respirator protection program Implement a respirator protection program Develop and enforce a hearing conservation program Develop and enforce a hearing conservation program Implement a medical screening program Implement a medical screening program Investigate the use of engineering controls to reduce or eliminate dust exposure Investigate the use of engineering controls to reduce or eliminate dust exposure Ensure compliance with fall protection standards Ensure compliance with fall protection standards

22 Respiratory Protection Program Written program following OSHA respiratory protection standard Written program following OSHA respiratory protection standard Fit testing quantitatively or qualitatively at least annually Fit testing quantitatively or qualitatively at least annually Medical screens or exams at least annually Medical screens or exams at least annually Training on workplace hazards and use of respirators (donning, doffing, cleaning, storage, etc.) at least annually Training on workplace hazards and use of respirators (donning, doffing, cleaning, storage, etc.) at least annually Must be mandatory until engineering controls are in place and proven effective Must be mandatory until engineering controls are in place and proven effective

23 Engineering Controls Controls need to address both silica and noise hazards Controls need to address both silica and noise hazards Commercially available LEV systems Commercially available LEV systems Wet cutting Wet cutting Cutting using water mist system Cutting using water mist system Other options Other options –Cutting on ground with stationary saw –Substitute use of crystalline silica tiles –Use of a manual tile cutter to replace the saw


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