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Occupational Health Introduction to Industrial Hygiene © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC.

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Presentation on theme: "Occupational Health Introduction to Industrial Hygiene © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Occupational Health Introduction to Industrial Hygiene © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC

2 Describe the purpose of a workplace Industrial Hygiene program. Give examples of potential workplace hazards. Give examples of how workers can be exposed to hazards. Describe types of controls used to protect workers from hazards. 2 Training Objectives © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC

3  In 2000, NIOSH conducted an investigation of exposures at a microwave popcorn manufacturing plant in Missouri.  A cluster of former employees of the facility had developed a rare lung disease called bronchiolitis obliterans.  The majority of employees diagnosed with bronchiolitis obliterans had been exposed to mixtures of butter flavoring chemicals.  The investigation concluded that there was "a risk for occupational lung disease in workers with inhalation exposure to butter flavoring chemicals".  There are currently no specific standards for occupational exposure to butter- flavoring or the chemical diacetyl. However, OSHA standards regulating all workplaces offer protection to workers exposed to these substances. Reference: 3 Case Study © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC

4  Industrial Hygiene (IH) focuses on worker exposure to health hazards.  IH programs help prevent work-related injuries & illnesses by: Anticipating – Recognizing – Evaluating hazards Controlling hazards through: 1.Engineering controls 2.Administrative Controls 3.Personal protective equipment (PPE) 4 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Introduction

5  Hippocrates noted lead toxicity in the mining industry (the fourth century BC).  Agricola, a German Scholar He suggested mine ventilation and personal protection equipment (PPE), and described mining diseases (e.g., silicosis). 5 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC IH has a long history

6  Dr. Alice Hamilton, led efforts to improve industrial hygiene. She startled officials with evidence between worker illness and their exposure to toxins.  In 1911, the first state compensation laws were passed. By 1948, all states had passed such legislation. Original compensation laws only covered compensation for accidental injury not illnesses. 6 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC IH has a long history

7 There are 4 common routes of entry for Biological and Chemical hazards 1.Inhalation 2.Absorption 3.Ingestion 4.Injection 7 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Recognizing Hazards

8 There are three common types of industrial workplace hazards: 1.Chemical 2.Physical 3.Biological © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC 8 Anticipating Hazards

9 Majority of industrial health hazards are from inhalation of: ▫Dusts ▫Fumes ▫Mists ▫Fibers ▫Gases ▫Vapors 9 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Recognizing Hazards - Chemical

10 Q: What types of chemicals are at your workplace? Q: How could you become exposed? 10 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC

11 These can cause infections by entering the body.  Bacteria  Viruses  Fungi  Other living organisms 11 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Recognizing Hazards - Biological

12 Q: What types of biological hazards are at your work place? Q: How could you become exposed? 12 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC

13 Equipment operations or environmental conditions can create physical hazards like.  Radiation  Noise  Vibration  Illumination  Temperature Extremes  Repetitive motion  Heavy lift/push/pull 13 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Recognizing Hazards – Physical Hazards

14 Q: What types of physical hazards are at your workplace? 14 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC

15 A job hazard analysis (JHA) is used to identify potential hazards for a task.  The task is broken down by steps Each step is reviewed for possible hazards A control method is then identified for each possible hazard. 15 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Evaluating Hazards - JHA

16 The level of hazard exposure during a work shift can be measured.  These measurements help determine required PPE.  OSHA has specific limits of exposure for many chemicals, noise and radiation. 16 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Evaluating Hazards - Measurements

17 Chemical  OSHA requires respiratory protection when chemical exposure levels are too high.  The level of chemicals in the air is measured in ppm or mg/m 3  per 8-hour = TWA  15 minute = STEL  Maximum = C  Supplied Air Required = IDLH 17 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Evaluating Hazards - Measurements

18 Engineering controls should be the primary method to prevent employee exposure.  Replacing harmful toxic materials with less hazardous ones  Enclosing work processes or isolating operators  Installing ventilation systems  Using a wet method to reduce dust 18 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Controlling Hazards – Engineering

19 Q: What are examples of engineering controls used at your workplace? Q: What would happen if they failed? 19 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC

20 When engineering controls are not feasible, Administrative controls should be used to prevent employee exposure.  Preventative Maintenance program for equipment safety systems.  Good housekeeping procedures  Training and safe operational procedures  Warning signage and alarms  Using chemical detection alarms  Restricting number of work hours in an area. 20 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Controlling Hazards – Administrative

21 Q: What are examples of administrative controls used at your workplace? Q: What would happen if they failed? 21 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC

22 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should only be used as a last resort.  PPE minimize exposure levels but does not guarantee full protection from a hazard: Gloves Coveralls Respiratory Protection Hearing Protection Safety shoes 22 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Controlling Hazards – PPE

23 Q 1: What are 4 routes of entry for exposure at work? A: Skin, Inhalation, Injection, Ingestion. 23 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC

24 Q 2: What are three common types of workplace hazards? A: Chemical, Biological and Physical. 24 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC

25 Q 3: What is an example of an administrative control? A: 1.Preventative Maintenance program for equipment 2.Good house-keeping 3.Training and safe operational procedures 4.Warning signage and alarms 5.Using chemical detection alarms 6.Restricting number of work hours in an area 25 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC

26 Q 4: What is an example of an engineering control? A: 1.Replacing harmful toxic materials 2.Enclosing work processes or isolating operators 3.Installing ventilation systems 4.Using a wet method to reduce dust 26 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC

27  IH program work to prevent work-related injuries & illnesses by control hazards.  Engineering controls are the best method to prevent exposures at work.  Administrative controls should be used when engineering controls are not feasible.  PPE should only be used as a last line of defense and not as a primary method to control employee exposure. 27 Summary © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC


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