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Occupational Health Introduction to Industrial Hygiene © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
Describe the purpose of a workplace Industrial Hygiene program. Give examples of potential workplace hazards. Give examples of how workers can be exposed to hazards. Describe types of controls used to protect workers from hazards. 2 Training Objectives © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
In 2000, NIOSH conducted an investigation of exposures at a microwave popcorn manufacturing plant in Missouri. A cluster of former employees of the facility had developed a rare lung disease called bronchiolitis obliterans. The majority of employees diagnosed with bronchiolitis obliterans had been exposed to mixtures of butter flavoring chemicals. The investigation concluded that there was "a risk for occupational lung disease in workers with inhalation exposure to butter flavoring chemicals". There are currently no specific standards for occupational exposure to butter- flavoring or the chemical diacetyl. However, OSHA standards regulating all workplaces offer protection to workers exposed to these substances. Reference: www.OSHA.gov 3 Case Study © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
Industrial Hygiene (IH) focuses on worker exposure to health hazards. IH programs help prevent work-related injuries & illnesses by: Anticipating – Recognizing – Evaluating hazards Controlling hazards through: 1.Engineering controls 2.Administrative Controls 3.Personal protective equipment (PPE) 4 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Introduction
Hippocrates noted lead toxicity in the mining industry (the fourth century BC). Agricola, a German Scholar He suggested mine ventilation and personal protection equipment (PPE), and described mining diseases (e.g., silicosis). 5 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC IH has a long history
Dr. Alice Hamilton, led efforts to improve industrial hygiene. She startled officials with evidence between worker illness and their exposure to toxins. In 1911, the first state compensation laws were passed. By 1948, all states had passed such legislation. Original compensation laws only covered compensation for accidental injury not illnesses. 6 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC IH has a long history
There are 4 common routes of entry for Biological and Chemical hazards 1.Inhalation 2.Absorption 3.Ingestion 4.Injection 7 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Recognizing Hazards
There are three common types of industrial workplace hazards: 1.Chemical 2.Physical 3.Biological © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC 8 Anticipating Hazards
Majority of industrial health hazards are from inhalation of: ▫Dusts ▫Fumes ▫Mists ▫Fibers ▫Gases ▫Vapors 9 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Recognizing Hazards - Chemical
Q: What types of chemicals are at your workplace? Q: How could you become exposed? 10 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
These can cause infections by entering the body. Bacteria Viruses Fungi Other living organisms 11 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Recognizing Hazards - Biological
Q: What types of biological hazards are at your work place? Q: How could you become exposed? 12 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
Equipment operations or environmental conditions can create physical hazards like. Radiation Noise Vibration Illumination Temperature Extremes Repetitive motion Heavy lift/push/pull 13 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Recognizing Hazards – Physical Hazards
Q: What types of physical hazards are at your workplace? 14 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
A job hazard analysis (JHA) is used to identify potential hazards for a task. The task is broken down by steps Each step is reviewed for possible hazards A control method is then identified for each possible hazard. 15 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Evaluating Hazards - JHA
The level of hazard exposure during a work shift can be measured. These measurements help determine required PPE. OSHA has specific limits of exposure for many chemicals, noise and radiation. 16 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Evaluating Hazards - Measurements
Chemical OSHA requires respiratory protection when chemical exposure levels are too high. The level of chemicals in the air is measured in ppm or mg/m 3 per 8-hour = TWA 15 minute = STEL Maximum = C Supplied Air Required = IDLH 17 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Evaluating Hazards - Measurements
Engineering controls should be the primary method to prevent employee exposure. Replacing harmful toxic materials with less hazardous ones Enclosing work processes or isolating operators Installing ventilation systems Using a wet method to reduce dust 18 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Controlling Hazards – Engineering
Q: What are examples of engineering controls used at your workplace? Q: What would happen if they failed? 19 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
When engineering controls are not feasible, Administrative controls should be used to prevent employee exposure. Preventative Maintenance program for equipment safety systems. Good housekeeping procedures Training and safe operational procedures Warning signage and alarms Using chemical detection alarms Restricting number of work hours in an area. 20 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Controlling Hazards – Administrative
Q: What are examples of administrative controls used at your workplace? Q: What would happen if they failed? 21 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should only be used as a last resort. PPE minimize exposure levels but does not guarantee full protection from a hazard: Gloves Coveralls Respiratory Protection Hearing Protection Safety shoes 22 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC Controlling Hazards – PPE
Q 1: What are 4 routes of entry for exposure at work? A: Skin, Inhalation, Injection, Ingestion. 23 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
Q 2: What are three common types of workplace hazards? A: Chemical, Biological and Physical. 24 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
Q 3: What is an example of an administrative control? A: 1.Preventative Maintenance program for equipment 2.Good house-keeping 3.Training and safe operational procedures 4.Warning signage and alarms 5.Using chemical detection alarms 6.Restricting number of work hours in an area 25 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
Q 4: What is an example of an engineering control? A: 1.Replacing harmful toxic materials 2.Enclosing work processes or isolating operators 3.Installing ventilation systems 4.Using a wet method to reduce dust 26 © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
IH program work to prevent work-related injuries & illnesses by control hazards. Engineering controls are the best method to prevent exposures at work. Administrative controls should be used when engineering controls are not feasible. PPE should only be used as a last line of defense and not as a primary method to control employee exposure. 27 Summary © 2011 Sensible Safety Source LLC
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