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Physical Science Chapter 5 Energy & Power

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5.1 The Nature of Energy Energy – the ability to do work or cause a change. Energy – the ability to do work or cause a change. work is the transfer of energy work is the transfer of energy SI unit for energy is the same as the SI unit for work – Joule SI unit for energy is the same as the SI unit for work – Joule Two main types of energy: Kinetic and Potential Two main types of energy: Kinetic and Potential Kinetic Energy: the energy of motion Kinetic Energy: the energy of motion Potential Energy: Energy stored for use at a later time Potential Energy: Energy stored for use at a later time

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Calculating Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy: the energy of motion Kinetic Energy: the energy of motion The amount of kinetic energy depends on the objects mass and velocity The amount of kinetic energy depends on the objects mass and velocity Energy is transferred during work Energy is transferred during work The more work one does on an object… The more work one does on an object… The more energy one imparts on the object The more energy one imparts on the object Kinetic energy = Mass x Velocity 2 Kinetic energy = Mass x Velocity 2 2 When mass is doubled; Kinetic Energy is doubled When velocity is doubled; Kinetic Energy is quadrupled!!

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What’s the Kinetic Energy? What is the Kinetic Energy (in Joules) of an object with a mass of 10 kg and a velocity of 10 m/s? What is the Kinetic Energy (in Joules) of an object with a mass of 10 kg and a velocity of 10 m/s? When mass is doubled; Kinetic Energy is doubled When mass is doubled; Kinetic Energy is doubled When velocity is doubled; Kinetic Energy is quadrupled!! When velocity is doubled; Kinetic Energy is quadrupled!!

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Potential Energy: Energy stored for use at a later time Energy stored for use at a later time 2 Types: 2 Types: Elastic Potential Energy: Elastic Potential Energy: Energy stored in springs, bow and arrow, stretched elastic or rubber bands. Energy stored in springs, bow and arrow, stretched elastic or rubber bands. Associated w/ objects that can be stretched or compressed. Associated w/ objects that can be stretched or compressed. Gravitational Potential Energy: Gravitational Potential Energy: Height and weight dependant (notice its weight, NOT mass!) Height and weight dependant (notice its weight, NOT mass!) GPE = work done to lift and object to a height GPE = work done to lift and object to a height GPE = Weight x Height (remember that weight = mass x 9.8 m/s2) GPE = Weight x Height (remember that weight = mass x 9.8 m/s2) GPE = mass x 9.8 m/s2 x Height GPE = mass x 9.8 m/s2 x Height GPE = 100 N x 300 m = 30,000 Nm = 30,000 Joules

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Different Forms of Energy 6 different types : 6 different types : Mechanical Mechanical Thermal Energy Thermal Energy Chemical Energy Chemical Energy Electrical Energy Electrical Energy Electromagnetic Energy Electromagnetic Energy Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy

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Mechanical Energy associated w/ the motion (kinetic) or position of an object (potential) associated w/ the motion (kinetic) or position of an object (potential) Kinetic Energy exists whenever an object which has mass is in motion with some velocity. Everything you see moving about has kinetic energy. Kinetic Energy exists whenever an object which has mass is in motion with some velocity. Everything you see moving about has kinetic energy. Potential Energy exists whenever an object which has mass has a position within a force field. The most everyday example of this is the position of objects in the earth's gravitational field. Potential Energy exists whenever an object which has mass has a position within a force field. The most everyday example of this is the position of objects in the earth's gravitational field. GPE = Weight x Height

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Thermal Energy associated w/ the total energy of the particles (atoms and molecules) in an object. As thermal energy increases, the particles increase in speed and the thermal energy (temperature) of the object increases. associated w/ the total energy of the particles (atoms and molecules) in an object. As thermal energy increases, the particles increase in speed and the thermal energy (temperature) of the object increases.

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Chemical Energy the energy stored in chemical bonds. The potential energy stored in compounds. the energy stored in chemical bonds. The potential energy stored in compounds.

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Electrical Energy Moving electrical charges. Electricity!! Moving electrical charges. Electricity!!

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Electromagnetic energy Travels in waves, associated w/ light, infrared, ultraviolet, microwaves, x-rays, etc Travels in waves, associated w/ light, infrared, ultraviolet, microwaves, x-rays, etc Longer wavelength yields low frequency & low energy Longer wavelength yields low frequency & low energy Shorter wavelength yield high frequency & high energy Shorter wavelength yield high frequency & high energy

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Nuclear Energy Associated w/ the fusion or fission of nuclear atoms. Associated w/ the fusion or fission of nuclear atoms. The fusion of hydrogen into helium fuels the power of the sun

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5.2 Energy Conversion and Conservation Most forms of energy can be converted from one type to another. Most forms of energy can be converted from one type to another. Law of the Conservation of Energy - states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. It simply changes from one form into another Law of the Conservation of Energy - states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. It simply changes from one form into another Einstein’s theory of Relativity - E = mc 2 Einstein’s theory of Relativity - E = mc 2 a small amount of mass can be changed directly into a tremendous amount of energy a small amount of mass can be changed directly into a tremendous amount of energy E = the energy produced E = the energy produced m = the mass being converted m = the mass being converted c = the speed of light (186,000 miles/second) c = the speed of light (186,000 miles/second)

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Energy Conversion

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Section 5.4 Power Power: the rate at which work is done Power: the rate at which work is done Power = work / time and since: Power = work / time and since: Work = force x distance…. Work = force x distance…. Power = Force x Distance Power = Force x Distance Time Time SI Unit for Power is the Watt SI Unit for Power is the Watt 1 Watt = 1Joule / 1 Second 1 Watt = 1Joule / 1 Second Horsepower : An American unit of power Horsepower : An American unit of power The amount of work a horse does when it lifts The amount of work a horse does when it lifts 33,000 pounds of coal to a height of 1 foot in 1 minute. 33,000 pounds of coal to a height of 1 foot in 1 minute. 1 horsepower = 746 watts 1 horsepower = 746 watts James Watt Same amount of work was done; however there was more power in lifter B since his took less time AB

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Power Problems W = F x D P = F x D / T P = 35 N x 10 m / 5 sec P = 350 J / 5 sec = 70 J/sec P = 70 Watts W = P x T convert 1 hour into seconds: 1 hour 60 min x 60 sec 1 hr 1 min Work = 60 watts x 3600 sec = 216,000 Joules = 216 Kilojoules

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