Objectives Describe how energy, work, and power are related. Name and describe the two basic kinds of energy.
What is Matter? Anything that has mass and takes up space. Everything has matter.
What is Energy? The ability to do work or cause change Particle movement = Energy The more movement, the more energy, the more heat that is generated.
Work and Energy REMEMBER Work = Force x distance So when work is done on an object some of its energy is transferred to the other object.
Energy and Power REMEMBER Power = Work / time Power is the rate at which energy is transferred = work
Calculate power and energy Power = Energy transferred (work) time
Two kinds of Energy 1.Kinetic Energy 2.Potential Energy All types of energy falls under one of these forms
Kinetic Energy Any object in motion is considered to have kinetic energy. Kinetic comes from the Greek word kinetos, which means “moving”
Factors that affect kinetic energy Friction Velocity of the object in motion Mass of the object
Calculate Kinetic Energy (KE) Kinetic Energy (Joule) Mass (g or kg) Velocity=speed (m/s) Kinetic Energy = ½ x mass x velocity 2
Potential Energy (PE) Stored energy that results from the position or shape of the object. Objects that have the potential to move/do work. ALL objects not moving have PE. PE is related to an objects height.
Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) This is the energy related to an object’s height. The higher the object, the more PE the object has. GPE = Weight(N) x Height(m)
Elastic Potential Energy (EPE) Stretching or compressing of objects Example; rubber band, bow and arrow
Forms of Energy Ch. 13-2 Objectives How can you determine an object’s mechanical energy? What are some forms of energy associated with the particles that make up an object?
Forms of Energy Mechanical energy Thermal energy Electrical energy Chemical energy Nuclear energy Electromagnetic energy
Mechanical Energy Energy associated with motion. Mechanical Energy = PE + KE
Forms of Energy Deal with particles that make up the objects. Types of particle motion
Thermal Energy Heat energy stimulated from the motion of particles within matter. The faster the particles move the more heat is generated
Electrical Energy The energy of electrical charges, lightning
Chemical Energy The potential energy stored in the chemical bonds that hold chemical compounds together. Chemical energy is stored in food we eat and in turn is changed into mechanical energy.
Nuclear Energy The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. The sun goes through nuclear fusion constantly combining hydrogen atoms with helium atoms. This results in the light and heat we see. Fission is the splitting of an atom creating nuclear bombs.
Electromagnetic Energy Energy that travels in waves. X-rays, microwaves, ultraviolet (UV), infrared radiation, and radio waves.
Energy Transformation and Conservation How are different forms of energy related? What is a common energy transformation? What is the law of conservation of energy?
Energy Transformations A change from one form of energy to another form to get work done. Ex. Chemical(energy in food) to Mechanical(energy of motion to move your muscles)
Energy Conservation Law of Conservation of Energy states that when one form of energy is transformed to another, no energy is destroyed in the process. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed it just changes form.
How can energy be created? By destroying matter. Ex. If I burn a log to ash. I am destroying matter, but creating many types of energy. Chemical Thermal Light
Questions/Review 1.What is the relationship between different forms of energy? 2.When you turn a toaster on, what happens to the electrical energy? 3.Describe the energy transformations that happen whey you strike a match. List them in order in which they occur.
1.They can be transformed into other forms of energy. 2.Electrical energy is transformed to thermal energy. 3.First, striking the match mechanical energy to thermal energy. Thermal energy causes particles to release into chemical energy. Chemical energy is transformed to thermal and electromagnetic energy.
Nonrenewable Resources Sources of energy not able to be renewed or replenished. Fossil Fuels 1.Oil and petroleum products (gasoline, diesel fuel, and propane) 2.Natural gas 3.Coal 4.Uranium (nuclear energy)