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BIOLOGY BIG IDEAS EOCT Prep. Characteristics of Life Q: What are the Characteristics of Life? Response to Stimulus Maintain Homeostasis Made of Cells.

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Presentation on theme: "BIOLOGY BIG IDEAS EOCT Prep. Characteristics of Life Q: What are the Characteristics of Life? Response to Stimulus Maintain Homeostasis Made of Cells."— Presentation transcript:


2 Characteristics of Life Q: What are the Characteristics of Life? Response to Stimulus Maintain Homeostasis Made of Cells Have DNA Obtain & Use Materials & Energy Evolve Grow & Develop Reproduce Repair tissues Have a defined life span

3 Scientific Variables – IV & DV Q: Hypothesis: Taking 500 mg vitamin D/day for 7 days will improve immune function. What are the IV & DV? A: IV: 500 mg vitamin D/day for 7 days A: DV: improved immune function

4 Ecology – Energy Flow Q: If there is 100,000 cals at the 1 st trophic level, how much energy will be available to the secondary consumers? A: 1,000 cals Q: In a balanced ecosystem, which trophic level has the most energy and biomass? A: 1 st (Primary Producers)

5 Ecology – Energy Flow vs. Nutrient Cycling In ecosystems, energy ________ and nutrients like N, P, C, H2O ________. A: flows…recycles

6 Ecology - Biomagnification Q: Some chemicals like mercury (Hg) do not biodegrade. Instead, they build up in tissues of organisms. Which trophic level would you expect to find the MOST mercury? Choices: A. 1 st B. 2 nd C. 3 rd D. 4 th A D. 4 th

7 Ecology - Symbiosis Q: What are the three types of symbiosis? A: mutualism, commensalism, parasitism

8 Ecology – Limiting Factors Q: Which type of growth is effected by limiting factors? A: Exponential/Logistic Q: Which type of limiting factor affects a population as it grows larger? A: Density-Dependent (Ex: amounts of food, space, water, etc.)

9 Ecology – Succession Q: A hardwood forest is partially destroyed by a forest fire leaving soil and a few grasses. Over time, pioneer species like annual plants and pine saplings begin to grow. What type of succession is this? A: Secondary

10 Biochemistry - Water Q: What has unique properties like hydrogen bonding, less density as a solid, cohesion and adhesion because water is ______. A: Polar

11 Biochemistry - Macromolecules Q: Which macromolecule provides structures and energy storage in plants, but quick energy in animals? A: Carbohydrates Q: What type of reaction breaks down bonds between monomers releasing energy? A: Hydrolysis Q: Which macromolecule, made of amino acids dictated by DNA, makes up enzymes and structures of living things? A: Proteins

12 Biochemistry - Enzymes Q: What do enzymes do to the rate of reactions? A: Act as a catalyst, speed up reactions. Q: What do high temperature or pH changes do to enzymes? A: It denatures the enzyme (changes its shape) A: After a point, slows rate of reaction

13 Biochemistry - pH Q: A substance with a pH of 3 would be a _____ whereas a substance with a pH of 11 would be a ______. A: acid…base

14 Cells: Types Q: A new cell is discovered. It has the following structures: Golgi bodies, nucleus, ribosomes, cell wall, chloroplasts, ER. What type of cell would this be? A: Eukaryotic, Plant Cell

15 Cells: Types Q: A cell is discovered and found to have the following structure: circular chromosome, ribosomes, cell wall, flagella. What type of cell is this? A: Prokaryotic

16 Cells: Organelle Function Q: A problem is detected in a cell. It is no longer packaging and shipping proteins correctly. Which organelle is malfunctioning? A: Golgi

17 Cells – Membrane & Transport Q: Which picture shows facilitated diffusion? A: B – through a protein, high to low, no ATP. Q: Which picture shows active transport? A: C – from low to high, ATP A B C

18 Cells – Membrane & Transport Q: A cell has a solute concentration of 3%. It is placed into a solution that has a 10% solute concentration. Assume the cell membrane is impermeable to the solute. The solution is ______ to the cell and therefore water will move _______. A: hypertonic…out of the cell

19 Cells - Photosynthesis Q: What is the balanced equation for photosynthesis? A: 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light  C6H12O6 + 6O2 Q: Which step in photosynthesis would be prevented if CO2 was lacking – the light reactions or the Calvin Cycle? A: The Calvin Cycle.

20 Cells – Respiration Q: What is the balanced equation for cell respiration? A: 6O2 + C6H12O6  6H2O + 6CO2 + 36-38 ATP Q: Which step of Cellular Respiration generates the most energy? A: The Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

21 Cell Cycle & Division Q: Error! A cell enters the M phase and its DNA was NOT copied! Which phase of the cell cycle had an error? A: S phase Q: The goal of mitosis is to produce genetically ______, ________ cells, whereas the goal of meiosis is to produce genetically ______, _______ cells. A: identical, diploid….different, haploid

22 Cell Cycle & Division Q: Which process describes meiosis? A: Diagram B A B

23 Cell Cycle & Division Q: Some genetic diseases result from the incorrect separation of chromosomes during meiosis. What is this incorrect process called? A: non-disjunction

24 DNA Q: In DNA, A pairs with ____ and C pairs with _____. A: T…G Q: If the DNA template sequence is ATGCTA, what is the complementary sequence the enzyme DNA polymerase would bring during replication? A: TACGAT

25 Protein Synthesis Q: What are the two stages in protein synthesis? A: Transcription & Translation Q: Which stage takes place at the ribosome? A: Translation Q: If the DNA is TACAAACTCACT, what is the sequence of the mRNA transcript that would be made? A: AUGUUUGAGUGA

26 Protein Synthesis Q: If the DNA sequence is: TACAAACTCACT, what amino acid sequence will make up the protein? A: Met – Phe – Glut Acid – Stop Q: If the sequence lost its first A, What type of mutation is this? A: Frameshift – changes # of aa’s

27 Genetics - Mendelian Q: In humans, tongue rolling is dominant (T). Two heterozygous parents (Tt) have a baby. Q: What is the probability their baby will be a tongue roller? A: 75% (3/4) Q: What is the probability their baby will be homozygous dominant? A: 25% (1/4)

28 Genetics – Human & Tech Q: What is the picture on the page called? A: Karyotype Q: From the picture on the page, you know the individual is ____. A: male Q: Chromosomes 1-22 are called __. A: Autosomes

29 Genetics – Human & Tech Q: What is this called? A: DNA Fingerprint Q: Who are the only people who have identical patterns? A: Identical twins

30 Genetics – Human & Tech Q: A mom with type O blood and a dad with type AB blood are having a baby. What blood types could their baby have? A: A or B Q: If you have type A blood, which types can you receive in a transfusion? A: A or O

31 Genetics – Human & Tech A normal father (X c Y) and a mother who carries the allele for colorblindness (X c X c ) are having fraternal twins – a boy and a girl. Q: What is the probability their son will be colorblind? A: 50% Q: What is the probability their daughter will be colorblind? A: 0%

32 Evolution Q: What are the parts to Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection? A: Organisms struggle for existence, Organisms overproduce, Survival of the Fittest, Population evolves Q: T/F – Individual organisms can evolve. A: F Q: Organisms with the best adaptations to survive in their environment and reproduce are said to have _____. A: Fitness

33 Evolution A population of moth has two phenotypes – light and dark. Light moths are easily seen and eaten. Dark moths are camouflaged, survive and have more offspring. Q: What type of Natural Selection – Stabilizing, Directional or Disruptive – is this? A: Directional

34 Evolution Q: Genetically, early human mothers could produce babies that range in size from 1kg-8kg. Today the range is 3-5kg. What type of Natural Selection – Directional, Stabilizing or Disruptive – is this? A: Stabilizing

35 Evolution Q: Name an adaptation that allowed Reptiles and Birds to be better fit for land environments. A: Amniotic egg, scaly skin, lungs, more complex circulation Q: Plants develop chemical toxins to prevent predation. What type of adaptation is this? A: chemical (others are structural and behavioral)

36 Evolution Q: Sharks and dolphins do NOT share a common ancestor very recently, but they look alike and share the same habitat. What type of evolution describes this? A: Convergent

37 Evolution Q: The wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale are both made up of the same bones which are slightly modified. They function differently but they show similar evolutionary origin. What are these structures called? A: Homologous Structures

38 Evolution A population of tortoises from a main land migrate to an island. The tortoises have a range in neck length from short to long. On the island, the short necked tortoises are better adapted to protect themselves against predators. Many generations later, most tortoises have very short necks due to this selection. Mutations and continued natural selection have caused changes in the tortoises gene pools. Eventually, the island tortoises are reproductively isolated from the mainland tortoises. Q: Which level of evolution does this describe? A: Speciation

39 Virus/Bacteria Q: A scientist finds a new pathogen. It contains an RNA genome surrounded by a protein capsid. A picture of it is below. Is this a virus or a bacterium? A: Virus Q: Are viruses considered living? A: No.

40 Virus/Bacteria Q: You find a pathogen which has the following characteristics: cell wall, pili, cell membrane, flagella, peptidoglycan, ribosomes, DNA. Is this a Virus, a Eubacterium or an Archaeabacterium? A: Eubacterium

41 Protists Q: Protists are considered the very first type of life with a ______ cell. A: Eukaryotic Q: Animal-like protists are called ____________ while plant- like protists are called ______________ A: Protozoa, Algae Q: The phylum sarcodina moves using its____________ A: Pseudopods

42 Fungus Q: T/F – Some fungi are autotrophic. A: False Q: T/F – Fungi digest externally. A: True Q: T/F – A fungus is the largest organism in the world. A: True Q: T/F – Fungi have cell walls. A: True – Fungi is made of chitin

43 Plants Q: Which group of plants is best adapted to living on land? A: Vascular, Protected Seed Flowering Plants, AKA Angiosperms Q: You find that a vascular plant’s phloem is not working properly. What problem will arise in the plant? A: Not enough energy providing sugars will be transported to the lower region of the plant. Roots/stem will die due to lack of cellular respiration.

44 Plants Q: Name an adaptation which will allow plants to survive and compete for light in a crowded canopy by bending towards available light. A: Phototropism

45 Animals Q: Why are animal-like Protists NOT considered true animals? A: animal-like protists are unicellular and some have cell walls Q: Which characteristics of echinoderms make them closest in relation to chordates? A: deuterostome development & endoskeleton Q: Name 3 animal adaptations that are successful on land. A: Anything that prevents water loss, allows for moist respiratory surfaces, protects gametes and provides additional energy for needs on land. Ex: aminiotic egg, scaly skin, kidneys, lungs, closed circulation/4 chambered heart

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