16 Differentiate between the following types of symbiosis: Mutualism Parasitism Commensalism
17 Mutualism – both partners benefit Parasitism – one organism benefits while the other is harmed Commensalism – one organism benefits while the other is unaffected
Environmental Problems: 1.What are the 3 primary Greenhouse gasses and what do they cause 2.What is the result of fat-soluble pollutants moving up the food chain and what is this process called? 18
19 1. CO 2, CH 4, & H 2 O – cause global warming 2. Biomagnification results in fat- soluble pollutants concentrating in top predators in a food chain
Define the following terms: Ecological Succession Ecological Equivalents Intraspecific Competition Invasive Species Type 1 Growth Curve 20
21 Ecological Succession – gradual change in the plant species of an ecosystem over time Ecological Equivalents – organisms that have evolved similar traits due to similar habitats Intraspecific Competition – competition between members of the same species Invasive Species – species that do not belong in an environment Type 1 Growth Curve – reproductive strategy in which most offspring live until they reach close to their maximum life span and then die off
22 What was the name of the guy who came up with the theory of evolution and what two types of animals on what island chain did he study in order to come up with his theory?
23 Charles Darwin studied finches and giant tortoises on the Galapagos Islands
24 What 4 types of isolation may lead to speciation?
28 Differentiate between homologous, analogous, and vestigial structures
29 Homologous – similar structure but different function (shows evolutionary relationship) Analogous – similar function but different structure (shown no evolutionary relationship) Vestigial – had a function in an earlier ancestor but no longer Human hand Bat wingMole foot Bat wing Fly wing
31 Divergent – when a species splits into several species and they get more different from one another over time Convergent – when unrelated species begin to become more similar to each other over time due to similar niches Coevolution – when two species evolve in response to each other
44 In Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, green shells are dominant over brown shells. Leonardo, who is heterozygous for a green shell, marries the lovely Mona Lisa, who has a brown shell. What are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of their possible offspring?
46 What shape does DNA form into, what is the name for the monomers that make up the nucleic acid, what molecules form the backbone, and what molecules form the “rungs” of the ladder?
47 DNA is a double helix of nucleotides. The sides of the double helix are made of the sugars & phosphates and the rungs of the ladder are made of nitrogenous bases hydrogen bond covalent bond
48 Differentiate between dominant/recessive genes, codominant genes, genes that show incomplete dominance, and polygenetic traits
49 Dominant/recessive – normal patterns (recessive trait is only seen in homozygous recessive organisms) Codominance – both versions of gene are seen completely Incomplete – blending of both versions of the gene Polygenetic – multiple genes affect the phenotype
50 Name the process pictured below and identify the labeled structures 1 2 3 4 5 6