# Biology 2013. Experiment – when an idea is tested. Independent Variable – measured (time or temp.) Dependent variable – manipulated variable. (WHAT.

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Biology 2013

Experiment – when an idea is tested. Independent Variable – measured (time or temp.) Dependent variable – manipulated variable. (WHAT you are measuring…) Control – part of the experiment that is kept constant – for comparison.

Smithers thinks that a special juice will increase the productivity of workers. He creates two groups of 50 workers each and assigns each group the same task (in this case, they're supposed to staple a set of papers). Group A is given the special juice to drink while they work. Group B is not given the special juice. After an hour, Smithers counts how many stacks of papers each group has made. Group A made 1,587 stacks, Group B made 2,113 stacks.

a)What is Smithers hypothesis? a)The magic juice will improve workers productivity b)What is the independent variable? a)The time the workers were asked to staple papers c)What is the dependent variable? a)The amount of papers the workers stapled. d)What are his controls? a)Same amount of workers in each test group b)Same amount of juice in test group c)Same amount of time workers could staple. e)What should Smithers conclusion be? a)The juice had no, if not a negative effect on the workers productivity.

How can we make this a good experiment? Use a large sample size Use controls! Test only 1 variable at a time Repeat experiment to see if you come up with the same conclusion every time.

Hypothesis – idea that can be tested. Theory – a hypothesis that has been tested many times and has a lot of evidence supporting it.

Animal: Cell tissue organ organ system ORGANISM! Ex. Muscle cell, muscle tissue, heart, circulatory system, human being! Plant: Ex. Plant cell, vascular bundle, leaf, vascular system, plant!

Maintaining a stable internal environment

Carbohydrates energy Lipids energy and cell membranes Proteins build and repair Nucleic acids store information

Monomers Glucose Amino acid Nucleotide Polymers Starch Protein Nucleic acid (DNA, RNA)

Proteins!

Functions: Lower activation energy Speed up reactions

It lowered the amount of activation energy.

Temperature – Lowers or speeds up reaction pH – All enzymes work at their own, special (optimal) pH

1.All living things are made up of one or more cells. 2.The cell is the basic unit of life 3.All cells come from pre-existing cells

Pro No Eu Do! Prokaryotes Bacteria, have no membrane-bound organelles, small Eukaryotes Plants and animals, have a lot of membrane-bound organelles, large

Prokaryotic – Have a cell membrane, have ribosomes. Eukaryotic – Have a cell membrane and have ribosomes.

Prokaryote Eukaryote

THE CELL (PLASMA) MEMBRANE

The movement of a substance from high to low concentration.

The movement of WATER from high to low concentration.

25. Under normal conditions, water will move from HIGH concentration to LOW concentration.

A. HYPERTONIC Water left the cell B. ISOTONIC Water moves equally into and out of the cell. C. HYPOTONIC Water moves into the cell

A form of passive diffusion where a substance needs a door to enter a cell. Substances move from high to low concentration.

When a substance needs energy (ATP) to move against the concentration gradient. (low to high or uphill concentration)

Endocytosis

Because muscle cells need ENERGY!

Because leaves are the plants sites of photosynthesis!

Cells grow when a single cell divides into two cells and that process keeps going it is called mitosis. When you reach adult hood and you stop growing it will still do this process because the old cells died out & dried out and new ones will replace them

INTERPHASE MITOSIS CYTOKINESIS

G1 – cell grows and carries out metabolism. S – DNA is copied G2 – cell gets ready to divide

Mitosis is NUCLEAR DIVISION!

36. The M phase of the cell cycle consists of both mitosis and cytokinesis. Mitosis refers to nuclear division, whereas cytokinesis refers to cell division.

24? Mitosis produces IDENTICAL CELLS!

Uncontrolled cell growth. Is caused by internal(genetic) factors as well as environmental factors

So that scientists can possible find cures to these diseases! Scientists can find the genes that cause these diseases!

The function of DNA is to provide the CODE to make PROTEINS!

NUCLEOTIDES! 5 CARBON SUGAR (HOUSE) PHOSPHATE (CHIMNEY) NITROGEN BASE (GARAGE)

Figure 12-1 shows the structure of a(an) DNA Using Figure 12-1, the structure labeled X is a NUCLEOTIDE The structure (shape) for Figure 12-1 is a DOUBLE HELIX

What is the nucleotide base sequence that complements the section of DNA modeled above? 5ATAGGCCTGAAG3

End result: two new strands, each with one parent and one new strand.

All living things have DNA The difference is in the SEQUENCE of the bases!

Transcription and Translation Transcription occurs in the nucleus Translation occurs in the cytoplasm, at the ribosome.

mRNA strand. To send the message of the gene to the ribosome where it can be translated into a protein!

A-U-G-C-C-G-C-U-A-U-A-A

A PROTEIN!

MET – LEU – LYS - STOP

They can change the amino acid sequence…

The coloration of the fur is dependent on environmental temperature.

A decline in the amount of phytoplankton, sea grass and seaweed

As you go up the pyramid, the amount of energy available for the next level decreases by a factor of 10.

Parasitism

Commensalism

Mutualism

Decomposers

Factors within the environment that affect populations because of their size. Ex. Disease, Famine

Factors within the environment that affect populations regardless of their size. Ex. Weather

Secondary Succession - starts from soil, usually occurs after a disturbance, like a fire or humans clearing forests. Primary Succession - starts from bare rock, the first life form, the pioneer species, is typically lichens and moss, they eventually develop soil, then larger types of vegetation can take hold; the largest form of vegetation in an area is called its climax community

Photosynthesis

In the chloroplasts of plant cells

In the mitochondria of all eukaryotic cells

The reactants of one equation are the products of the other.

TO HAVE 2 DIFFERENT ALLELES FOR A TRAIT.

50% Purple 50% white

25% chance of albino offspring. G: 1:2:1 P: 3:1

TTss X ttss Ts Ts Ts Ts x ts ts ts ts All would be Ttss

25% chance of type O, 25% chance of type A

AA X AB = 50% AA OR 50% AB AAA AA

Traits that are passed down from mother to children on the X chromosome.

???????????? = 25% CARRIER FEMALE, 25% NORMAL FEMALE 25% MALE WITH COLORBLINDNESS, 25% NORMAL MALE

Meiosis adds to the VARIATION within a species

RESULT = 4 UNIQUE HAPLOID DAUGHTER CELLS

Crossing over shuffles genes! Adds to VARIATION!

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