Presentation on theme: "Star Test Review Bio-CP. Chapter 15 Evolution- organisms change over time Charles Darwin- Naturalist who went on 5 year voyage on HMS Beagle stopping."— Presentation transcript:
Star Test Review Bio-CP
Chapter 15 Evolution- organisms change over time Charles Darwin- Naturalist who went on 5 year voyage on HMS Beagle stopping at Galapagos Islands. Known for his theory of evolution and natural selection. Natural selection- nature selects for those who are the most fit for their environment to survive to reproduce Adaptations- inherited characteristics that increase an organisms chance for survival
Chapter 11 Meiosis- formation of gametes Gametes- sex cells (sperm or egg) Haploid- 1 copy of the chromosomes (gametes), human haploid #= 23 Diploid- 2 copies of the chromosomes (rest of cells), human diploid #= 46 Homologous pairs- one chromosome from mom and one from dad Crossing over- homologous pairs touch during meiosis and swap DNA, increases genetic diversity
Gregor Mendel- Father of Modern genetics, known for his work with pea plants Genes- sequences of DNA that code for proteins Alleles- 2 forms of the gene (TT, Tt, tt) Genotype- genetic make-up (alleles) Phenotype- what you physically express (tall versus short pea plants)
Homo = same Homozygous dominant- TT Homozygous recessive- tt Hetero= different Heterozygous- Tt Punnett squares- uses parent’s gametes to predict probable genetic outcomes of offspring
Round (R) is dominant over wrinkled (r) seeds. Cross 2 heterozygous pea plants for seed shape. What are the chances the offspring will express the recessive trait?
Dad is heterozygous and mom is homozygous recessive. What are the chances their offspring will express the dominant trait?
Chapter 3 Autotroph/ producer- organism that can make its own food. Ex: plants Heterotroph/ consumer- organism that must consume food for energy. Ex: animals
Energy Pyramid/ trophic levels Energy flows in one direction Only 10% energy passed on to next trophic level
Chapter 7 Nucleus- control center of cell, contains DNA Ribosomes- site where proteins are made Rough ER- modifies proteins Golgi- packages and ships proteins Lysosomes- contains digestive enzymes to break down old cell parts, clean up crew Mitochondria- powerhouse of cell, energy, cellular respiration Vacuole- storage Chloroplast- photosynthesis in plants
Cell membrane- selectively permeable, only certain things can pass through the membrane Diffusion- pass through the membrane without using energy (passive transport) Osmosis- diffusion of water
Active transport uses energy
Chapter 2: Macromoleculemonomerfunctionexample carbsmonosaccharideImmediate energy Glucose, bread lipidsGlycerol, fatty acids Energy storage Fats, oils, steroids proteinsAmino acidsEverything!!Meat, enzymes Nucleic acidsnucleotidesStore, transmit hereditary info DNA, RNA
Chapter 1 Independent Variable- the one thing the experimenter changes Dependent variable- changes in response to independent variable Controlled variables- variables that remain constant throughout the entire experiment