Basic Endocrine System Terms Endo-: Inside Exo-: Outside -crine: secretions Endocrinology: The study of the glands and secretions that control metabolism, reproduction, sexual growth and development Endocrinologist: A specialist in the treatment of hormone imbalances, such as diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, and osteoporosis. Hormone: Chemical substance produced by specialized cells of the body and released slowly into the blood stream
Basic Endocrine System Anatomy Terms Aden/o: gland Adren/o or adrenal/o: adrenal glands Pancreat/o: Pancreas Parathyroid/o: parathyroid glands Pituitar/o: Pituitary gland Thym/o: Thymus gland Thyr/o or throid/o: Thyroid gland
Basic Endocrine System Terms Calc/o: calcium Gluco/o or glyc/o: glucose Gen or genesis: to create Toxic/o: poison -dipsia: thirst -trophy: development or nourishment Acr/o: extremities -magaly: enlargement
Endocrine System Pathology – Pituitary Gland Pituitarism: Any disorder of the pituitary glands and its functions Panhypopituitarism: Total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormonal activity. Pituitary hormones control function of the adrenal and thyroid glands, the testes and ovaries Gigantism or dwarfism: Overproduction or underproduction of growth hormone
Endocrine System Pathology- Adrenal Glands Cushing syndrome: Hypersecretion by the adrenal cortex causes excessive production of glucocorticoids. Can be caused by an adrenal tumor. Addison’s Disease: Damage to the adrenal glands resulting in a deficiency in the secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex (adrenocortical hormones) Pheochromocytoma: A rare tumor of adrenal gland tissue. It results in the release of too much epinephrine and norepinephrine, hormones that control heart rate, metabolism, and blood pressure
Endocrine System Pathology – Thyroid Gland Hypothyroidism: The thyroid undersecretes hormones: Myxedema: advanced hypothyroidism in adults. causes edema and increased blood volume, thereby increasing blood pressure Hyperthyroidism: The thyroid oversecretes hormones Grave’s disease: hypersecretion of thyroxine. Can result in exopthalmos and toxic goiter.
Endocrine System Pathology - Pancreas Insulinoma: Tumor of the Islet of Langerhans cells of the pancreas that secretes insulin causing low blood sugar. Type I diabetes: Abrupt onset in children and young adults due to failure of pancreas’ islet cells to produce insulin Type II diabetes: Gradual onset usually seen in patients over age 40. Insulin is produced, but the body’s cells become insulin-resistant
Endocrine System Diagnosis and Treatment Radioactive iodine uptake: Radioactive iodine is ingested to determine thyroid function. The thyroid’s ability to take up iodine from the blood is monitored Lab Tests: Free T4, TSH, Catacholamines, etc. Hormone Replacement Therapy: Use of synthetic hormones to compensate for hormone deficiencies
General Nervous System Terms Neur/o: Nerve Neurology: The branch of medicine that concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the nervous system which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Neurologist: Physician who provides evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of nervous system disorders
Nervous System Anatomy Terms Cerebr/o: Cerebrum Encephal/o: Brain Gli/o: glue or neurological tissue Mening/o or meningi/o: meninges Myel/o: bone marrow or spinal cord
Nervous System Physiology Terms -paresis: partial paralysis -phasia: speech -plegia: paralysis Deglutition: the act of swallowing Pruritis: severe itching Vertigo: the illusion of movement Formication: the sensation that bugs are crawling on or under the skin
Nervous System Pathology Terms Paralysis: loss of muscle function, loss of sensation or both. May be caused by trauma or disease. Paraplegia: Paralysis of the lower portion of the body and both legs. Sensory and motor control are lost below the level of injury. Quadraplegia: Paralysis of all four extremities and usually the trunk. Loss of function can extend to bladder, bowel and sexual response.
Nervous System Pathology Terms Palsy: Partial or complete loss of motor function. Cerebral palsy: bilateral, symmetrical, nonprogressive motor dysfunction. Usually caused by damage to the brain during gestation or from birth trauma Bell palsy: Facial paralysis caused by damage to 7th cranial nerve. It may be unilateral, bilateral, transient, or permanent
Nervous System Pathology Terms Transient ischemic attack: temporary lack of blood supply to the brain. Lasts a few minutes to a few hours. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA): Brain tissue damage usually caused by formation of a clot or blood leaking from a ruptured blood vessel. The resulting functional deficit depends on the area of the brain affected. Also called stroke, brain attack
Nervous System Pathology Terms Seizure: Convulsion or other clinically detectable even caused by a sudden discharge of electrical activity in the brain. Can be classified as partial or generalized. Epilepsy: Disorder affecting the central nervous system, characterized by recurrent seizures Epileptic Seizure Grand mal seizure
Nervous System Pathology Terms Huntington’s Disease: Hereditary nervous disorder caused by the progressive loss of brain cells, leading to bizarre, involuntary, dancelike movements Parkinson’s Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurological disorder affecting the portion of the brain responsible for controlling movement. Shaking movements (tremor) often interfere with voluntary movement Michael J. Fox Video
Nervous System Pathology Terms Multiple sclerosis (MS): A progressive degenerative, autoimmune disease of the CNS characterized by a loss of myelin throughout the spinal cord and brain Sciatica: Severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve Alzheimer Disease: A chronic organic mental disorder. A form of presenile dementia caused by atrophy of brain tissue
Nervous System Pathology Terms Hydrocephalus: Cranial enlargement caused by accumulation of fluid within the ventricles of the brain Neuroblastoma: A malignant tumor composed principally of cell resembling neuroblasts (nerve-forming cells). Occurs chiefly in infants and children
Nervous System Pathology Terms Spina Bifida: Congenital defect - incomplete closure of the spinal canal. The spinal cord and meninges may or may not protrude. Usually occurs in the lumbosacral area. Occulta: Most common and least severe form of this defect without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges Cystica: More severe form which involves protrusion of the meninges (meningocele), spinal cord (myelocele) or both (meningomyelocele)
Nervous System Pathology Terms Poliomyelitis: Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis Shingles: Eruption of painful, inflammatory vesicles on the trunk of the body along a peripheral nerve
Nervous System Diagnosis and Treatment Terms Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis: Cerebrospinal fluid taken by a lumbar puncture is evaluated for presence of blood, bacteria, malignant cells, white blood cells, glucose, and protein Radiologic Studies: PET scan, CT scan, MRI etc.
Craniotomy: Surgical procedure to create an opening in the skull to relieve intracranial pressure, to control bleeding, or to perform other surgical procedures on the brain Thalamotomy: Partial destruction of the thalamus to treat psychosis or intractable pain. Drug therapy has replaced this procedure and it is now rarely performed, if ever Nervous System Diagnosis and Treatment Terms