Tumor cells Tumor cells (such as lung or pancreas cancer) make excessive amounts of hormones identical to normal endocrine glands.
Growth Hormone Hypersecretion and hyposecretion result in structural abnormalities. Gigantism- still-active growth plates receive excessive GH Person becomes abnormally tall (often 8ft) Acromegaly- excessive GH secreted after growth plates close Enlarged extremities; overgrown hands, feet and face Pituitary Dwarfism- GH deficiency in children; slows bone growth
Pituitary Gland: Prolactin Prolactin: Hypersecretion in females leads to lactation problems, lack of menses, breast enlargement, and infertility Hypersecretion in males leads to impotence
Pituitary Gland: Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) ADH Deficiency= diabetes insipidus Can be caused by damage to hypothalamus or posterior pituitary Intense thirst and urine output Hypersecretion of ADH: occurs with meningitis, recovery from neurosurgery or hypothalamus injury Results in retention of fluid, headache, brain edema, weight gain
Thyroid Gland Imbalances Hypothyroidism leads to slow metabolism, chills, constipation, thick and dry skin, puffy eyes, edema, lethargy and mental sluggishness Lack of iodine= goiter Cretinism in children; can lead to mental retardation
Parathyroid Imbalances Hyperparathyroidism: Rare; usually results from parathyroid gland tumor Calcium is drawn out of bones; softening and deforming bones Hypo “”: usually caused by parathyroid gland trauma; results in loss of sensation, muscle twitches, convulsions Can lead to respiratory paralysis and death
Adrenal Gland Aldosteronism- hypersecretion; hypertension and accelerated expulsion of potassium Addision’s disease- hyposecretion of gluccocorticoids and mineralcoritcoids Can lead to muscle weakness and paralysis
Excessive gluccocorticoid hormone Cushing’s disease- ACTH releasing pituitary tumor Persistent hyperglycemia, loss of muscle and bone protein; water and salt retention Physical signs- swollen face, fat deposits in abdomen and posterior neck