5 Pituitary gland Produces many hormones that affect other glands thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)Somatotropin- growth hormone (GH) stimulates protein synthesis and growth in cellsLutenizing (LH)- causes ovulationMelanocyte stimulating- distribution of melanin in skinADH- antidiuretic hormone; stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water
6 Problems with the Pituitary Gigantism- oversecretion of somatotropin (GH) before puberty
10 Hypothalamus Controls secretion of the pituitary gland Activity influenced by other hormones and central nervous system
11 Thyroidproduces hormones (Thyroxine) that control metabolism and calcium in blood.Thyroid gland must have a source of iodine
12 GoiterToo little iodine in the diet needed for proper thyroid functionAll you need is a pinch per day of salt. If you can’t have salt, you can take iodine drops.
13 HYPERTHYROIDISMMost commonly caused by Graves Disease, which is an autoimmune diseaseSigns include thinness, eyes that stick out like a bug (exophthalmoses)Leads to nervousness, weight loss, sweating, and rapid heart rate.
14 Hypothyroidism Before and After Treatment Decreases metabolism, causes obesity
15 Adrenal Glands Located just above the kidney Secretes many hormones EpinephrineNorepinephrineMany steroid hormones, inc estrogen and androgens.Steroids have a three ring chemical structure
18 Pancreas pancreatic juices into the intestine Alpha cells secrete glucagon- increases glucose in bloodstream by signaling liver to breakdown glycogenBeta cells secrete insulin, a hormone that allows glucose into cells. Promotes storage of glucose as glycogen in liver
19 Diabetes MellitusCause- decreased secretion of insulin or decreased insulin sensitivitySymptomsExcessive thirst, excessive urination, hyperglycemia, slow healing of skin infections, lethargy, vision problems, nerve issuesAffects 21 million in US: 7% of populationEstimated 1/3 of people who have diabetes don’t know it225,000 die each year from complications132 billion/year- 10% of our health care spending
20 Insulin FactsInsulin was the first hormone identified (late 1920's) which won the doctor and medical student who discovered it the Nobel Prize (Banting and Best)Human Insulin- First ever approved genetically engineered human therapeutic by Genentech
21 Diabetes MellitusType I diabetes (insulin dependent, usually develops in children)Destruction of pancreatic Beta islet cells by immune systemNeed insulin injections daily throughout life.Type II diabetes (not insulin dependent in the beginning, usually develops in adults)consequence of obesity: cells are less sensitive to insulin.Initially treated with diet and exercise.Oral medicines or injected insulin may be needed.