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The Endocrine system Glands and hormones.

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Presentation on theme: "The Endocrine system Glands and hormones."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Endocrine system Glands and hormones

2 Hormones- chemical messengers carried by blood-
May stimulate other glands Regulate growth, development, metabolism, sex processes

3 Hormones need a specific receptor on a specific cell to do their job

4 Major Glands of the Endocrine system

5 Pituitary gland Produces many hormones that affect other glands
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Somatotropin- growth hormone (GH) stimulates protein synthesis and growth in cells Lutenizing (LH)- causes ovulation Melanocyte stimulating- distribution of melanin in skin ADH- antidiuretic hormone; stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water

6 Problems with the Pituitary
Gigantism- oversecretion of somatotropin (GH) before puberty

7 Pituitary Dwarfism

8 Acromegaly results when the anterior pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (GH) after epiphyseal plate closure at puberty

9 Acromegaly

10 Hypothalamus Controls secretion of the pituitary gland
Activity influenced by other hormones and central nervous system

11 Thyroid produces hormones (Thyroxine) that control metabolism and calcium in blood. Thyroid gland must have a source of iodine

12 Goiter Too little iodine in the diet needed for proper thyroid function All you need is a pinch per day of salt. If you can’t have salt, you can take iodine drops.

13 HYPERTHYROIDISM Most commonly caused by Graves Disease, which is an autoimmune disease Signs include thinness, eyes that stick out like a bug (exophthalmoses) Leads to nervousness, weight loss, sweating, and rapid heart rate.

14 Hypothyroidism Before and After Treatment
Decreases metabolism, causes obesity

15 Adrenal Glands Located just above the kidney Secretes many hormones
Epinephrine Norepinephrine Many steroid hormones, inc estrogen and androgens. Steroids have a three ring chemical structure

16 Excessive Adrenal Hormones
Cushing’s Disease- pituitary tumor (excess ACTH) Signs/symptoms: buffalo hump, moon face, muscle loss/weakness, thin skin with striae, hyperglycemia, immune suppression

17 Cushing’s Syndrome

18 Pancreas pancreatic juices into the intestine
Alpha cells secrete glucagon- increases glucose in bloodstream by signaling liver to breakdown glycogen Beta cells secrete insulin, a hormone that allows glucose into cells. Promotes storage of glucose as glycogen in liver

19 Diabetes Mellitus Cause- decreased secretion of insulin or decreased insulin sensitivity Symptoms Excessive thirst, excessive urination, hyperglycemia, slow healing of skin infections, lethargy, vision problems, nerve issues Affects 21 million in US: 7% of population Estimated 1/3 of people who have diabetes don’t know it 225,000 die each year from complications 132 billion/year- 10% of our health care spending

20 Insulin Facts Insulin was the first hormone identified (late 1920's) which won the doctor and medical student who discovered it the Nobel Prize (Banting and Best) Human Insulin- First ever approved genetically engineered human therapeutic by Genentech

21 Diabetes Mellitus Type I diabetes (insulin dependent, usually develops in children) Destruction of pancreatic Beta islet cells by immune system Need insulin injections daily throughout life. Type II diabetes (not insulin dependent in the beginning, usually develops in adults) consequence of obesity: cells are less sensitive to insulin. Initially treated with diet and exercise. Oral medicines or injected insulin may be needed.

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