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Introduction to Health Science The Endocrine System.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Health Science The Endocrine System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Health Science The Endocrine System

2 General Functions of the Endocrine System Made up of glands that release their products (hormones) directly into the bloodstream Response of hormones is slower and longer- lasting than those of nerve impulses – Effects may last up to several hours or days Hormones help to regulate important processes throughout the body – Growth – Development – Maturation – Regulation of chemicals and metabolism



5 Learning Log-Split ‘em and Hit ‘em Where is it located? What hormones does it release? What are the effects of the hormones on the body? – Pituitary Gland – Thyroid/Parathryoid Gland – Pancreas – Adrenal Gland

6 Pituitary Gland Small pea-shaped gland – Hangs from the underside of the brain Often referred to as the “Master Gland” – Produces many of the body’s hormones


8 Hormones Produced by the Pituitary Gland Growth Hormone (GH) – Produced by the anterior pituitary gland – Stimulates the production of proteins and growth in body cells Oxytocin – Stored in posterior pituitary gland – Stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth – Helps to release milk from the milk ducts of nursing mothers

9 Thyroid Gland Bow-tie shaped gland Located in the neck just below the larynx and around the upper part of the trachea – Thyroxine Produced by the thyroid which affects nearly all the cells of the body Regulates metabolic rates – The ability of cells to convert food to energy through cellular respiration


11 Parathyroid Gland Four glands located next to the thyroid gland Parathormone – Controls use of calcium Bone growth Muscle tone Nervous activity

12 Pancreas Fish-shaped gland – Located behind the stomach Considered to be an endocrine gland when it produces hormones – Also a part of the digestive system when it produces digestive enzymes


14 Hormones Produced by the Pancreas Insulin – Released when the blood sugar (glucose) is high – Helps the body cells to move glucose into the cells – Helps the liver and muscle to convert glucose into glycogen – Helps to convert excess glucose to fat which is then stored Glucagon Glucagon – Released when the blood sugar (glucose) is low – Helps to break down the glycogen in the liver and the muscles – Helps the body cells to expel glucose into blood – Raises blood glucose levels

15 Adrenal Glands Two triangular-shaped glands that sit on top of each kidney

16 Cortisol Helps to control the rate of metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins It is known as the stress hormone and is released during times of continuous stress A negative aspect is that it suppresses the action of the white blood cells – Makes a person more susceptible to illness

17 Adrenaline Also known as epinephrine Makes up 80% of the secretions from the adrenal medulla Helps regulate the stress (sympathetic) response or “fight or flight”

18 Noradrenaline Also known as norepinephrine Released from the adrenal medulla, or the middle section Makes up 20% of the secretions from the adrenal medulla Helps to regulate the stress (sympathetic) response or the “fight or flight”

19 The Sympathetic Response The Sympathetic Response increased heart rate increased breathing rate increased blood flow to the muscles increased blood pressure increase in the depth of breathing increasing oxygen intake release of extra glucose for more energy sweaty hands and palms

20 Ovaries Found only in women Two hormones – Estrogen Produces female characteristics Initiates female bodily functions – Progesterone Affects endometrial lining of uterus

21 Testes Only found in men Testosterone – Controls Growth of body hair and beard Body size Deepening of voice

22 Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine System Type I Diabetes Mellitus Type II Diabetes Mellitus Gigantism Dwarfism Hypothyroidism Hyperthyroidism

23 Type I Diabetes Mellitus Lifelong disease that occurs when pancreas does not produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar Without insulin, glucose increases in the bloodstream instead of going into the body cells where it can be used for energy – Leads to increased hunger – Mostly incurable

24 Type II Diabetes Mellitus Lifelong disease marked by high levels of glucose in the blood that occurs when the body does not respond correctly to insulin In other words, glucose cannot enter the body cells to be used in energy production – They produce enough insulin but the body doesn’t respond to it The most common form of diabetes – Sometimes curable

25 Gigantism Hypersecretion or overproduction of the growth hormone during childhood Results in a person who grows to a very large size May be caused by a non-cancerous tumor of the pituitary gland

26 Dwarfism Hyposecretion or underproduction of the growth hormone during childhood Results in a small person of normal proportions May be present at birth or develop as a result of brain injury, tumor, or other medical condition

27 Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland fails to produce enough thyroid hormone. – May result in mental retardation and stunted growth. – Cretinism (early onset, infants & young children). – Myxedema (later onset).

28 Hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much of the thyroid hormones. – Symptoms include weight loss, increased appetite, nervousness, restlessness, increased sweating and protruding eyes. – Treatment may include removal of the thyroid with radiation or surgery and replacement of thyroid hormones.

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