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Objectives: 1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures. 2. I can identify and distinguish between physical and chemical properties. 3. I can.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives: 1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures. 2. I can identify and distinguish between physical and chemical properties. 3. I can."— Presentation transcript:

1 Objectives: 1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures. 2. I can identify and distinguish between physical and chemical properties. 3. I can identify and distinguish between the two types of forces that affect the nature of molecules. 4. I can understand and distinguish between physical and chemical changes. 5. I can identify techniques used to separate mixtures.

2 Daily Objective I can define matter. I can identify and distinguish between the classes of matter.

3 What is Matter?

4 What does all matter have in common?

5 What does all matter have in common? Atoms!

6 What is Matter? One or more atoms that take up space and has mass. Emphasized that all matter’s properties and changes are due to the chemical make-up and interactions on the atomic level.

7 Classification of Matter What are some terms associated with the classification of matter?

8 Classification of Matter SubstanceMixture ElementHomogenous Mixture CompoundHeterogenous Mixture

9 Classification of Matter Terms: element, compound, mixture, substance, homogenous mixture, and heterogenous mixture. 1.Define/illustrate each term above. 2. Use a graphic organizer to show how these terms are connected to matter and each other.

10 Infinite Campus Update Density Lab Scientific Measurement Exam

11 Classification of Matter SubstanceMixture ElementHomogenous Mixture CompoundHeterogenous Mixture

12 Classification of Matter

13 Elements Smallest type of matter that maintains it properties. Each element represents a different atom (natural or synthetic) A symbol is used to represent each element.

14 Elements

15 Compound Chemical Combination of substances in a fixed amount. Each compound has a unique chemical formula. Ex. Sodium chloride = NaCl The chemical combination of substances produces new properties. Sodium (Na) + Chlorine (Cl) = Salt (NaCl)

16 Mixture Physically mixed together, so each matter’s properties are preserved. Use matter’s individual properties to physically separate from one another. Mixture’s composition can vary.

17 Heterogenous Mixures Observe multiple phases (parts) because the substances do not mix well.

18 Homogenous Mixtures Substances mix so well it looks like one phase.

19 Homongenous Mixtures Also called solutions. Solutions: -Solute: what is dissolved -Solvent: what dissolves Solubility= the ability of the solute to dissolve in the solvent.. NaCl + H 2 O

20 Classification of Matter

21 Exit Slip Classify the following examples two ways: a.Substance or Mixture? b.Element, Compound, Heterogenous mixture or Homogenous mixture? 1.gasoline at the pump (C 8 H 18 + other hydrocarbons) 2. glucose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) 3. aluminum foil 4. sand

22 Classifying Matter: Substances vs. Mixtures Substances Definite chemical make-up Elements or compounds Ex. Silicon chip or H 2 O Mixtures Varied chemical make- up 2 or more substances physically combined Homo or Hetero Mixtures Pizza and salt water

23 Classifying Matter: Substances vs. Mixtures Element Pure and simplest substance One type of atom Periodic table Symbol, (He= Helium) Homogenous Mixture 2 or more substances physically combined. Substances are very soluble in one another-mix well – one phase Substances in mix properties are preserved Separated by physical processes. Also called a solution Ex. salt water, kool-aid Compound 2 or more substances chemically combined Definite composition Break-down only thru chemical processes Substances making up cmpd gain new properties. Chemical Formula, H 2 O Ex. iron rust Heterogenous Mixture 2 or more substances physically combined. Substances are not soluble in one another-do not mix well-multiple phases Substances in mixture properties are preserved. Separated by physical processes Ex. Oil and water, pizza, soil

24 Classification of Matter

25 Exit Slip Classify the following examples two ways: a.Substance or Mixture? b.Element, Compound, Heterogenous mixture or Homogenous mixture? 1.gasoline at the pump 2.salt you garnish fries with 3.aluminum foil 4.sand

26 Infinite Campus Update Density Lab Scientific Measurement Exam

27 Classifying Matter O 2

28 Classifying Matter represents an atom physical combination of substances multiple phases one phase chemical combination of substances same composition from sample to sample individual properties are preserved when substances combine varied composition from sample to sample individual properties are lost and new properties are gained when substances combine chemical formula solution atom’s symbol substances dissolve in one another.

29 Substances Element Compound Substance

30 Mixtures Homogenous MixHeterogenous Mix Mixtures

31 Scientific Measurement Exam

32 Objectives: 1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures. 2. I can identify and distinguish between physical and chemical properties. 3. I can identify and distinguish between the two types of forces that affect the nature of molecules. 4. I can understand and distinguish between physical and chemical changes. 5. I can identify techniques used to separate mixtures.

33 Infinite Campus Update Density Lab Scientific Measurement Exam

34 Classification of Matter

35 Classification of Matter Lab Matter’s Name One or more phases (parts) Abbreviation of matter (Symbol/ Formula) # of substance(s) Element, Compound, Hetro Mix, Homo Mix 1tap water 2Deionized water

36 Classification of Matter Lab Questions Matter’s Name One or more phases (parts) Abbreviation of matter (Symbol/ Formula) # of substance(s) Element, Compound, Hetro Mix, Homo Mix

37 Conclusion: Classification of Matter Lab What was most beneficial about this lab? What was most challenging about this lab? How has this lab helped you make important connections and distinctions between the classes of matter?

38 Classifying Matter Lab Students with peers observe various samples of matter and classify them as an element, compound, homo mixture, or hetero mixture.

39 Scientific Measurement Exam

40 Classifying Matter 1. Classify each as either an element, compound, homo mixture, or hetero mixture a. soil b. orange juice with no pulp c. copper wire d. car gasoline (C 8 H 18 ) 2. What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?

41 Bell Ringer: Matter What is the difference between: a.substances and mixtures b.compounds and mixtures 2. Classify each of the following examples: a.sugar b.sugar water c.gold ring d.Iron rust (FeO) e.Italian dressing

42 Classification of Matter

43 Classifying Matter Lab Students re-assess their classification of matter lab examples.

44 Classifying Matter Lab O 2 = compound Why? Because the subscript number represents atoms that are chemically bonded. In this example, two atoms of oxygen are chemically bonded together.

45 Chemical vs. Physical Change Chemical Change: Matter’s chemical make-up changes. New matter is produced with new properties Ex. Iron Rust (FeO) Physical Change: Matter’s chemical make-up stays the same. Matter is the same, so most properties are the same. Ex. Lemonade

46 Intramolecular Forces H 2 O compound Forces within a compound that holds the atoms together. Also called chemical bonds.

47 Types of Chemical Changes Combustion Decaying Digesting Baking Neutralization (acidic and basic chemicals) Growing Spoiled

48 Physical Changes Physical process Substance(s) chemical make-up is preserved so no new substance is produced. Properties are preserved Ex. Making Lemonade

49 Intermolecular Forces Forces between compounds in a sample of matter. (group forces)

50 Types of Physical Changes Most states of matter Breaks Dissolves Crushes Cuts Absorbs

51 Infinite Campus 9/10/12 Classifying Matter Lab Classification of Matter Quiz

52 What kind of forces are affected ?.

53 Classification of Matter Quiz

54 Mixture Separation Lab Students work in groups to determine what physical processes they can use to separate out each substance in a given mixture. They will design and carry out their experiment to successfully separate out each substance in the mixture. Reiterate the concept that substances in a mixture maintain their physical properties because their chemical make-up is preserved.

55 Mixture Separation Lab (9/11) Purpose: To design and carry-out an experiment that will separate substances from a mixture.

56 Mixture Separation Lab Due: Today

57 Physical vs. Chemical Changes

58 What kind of forces are affected ?.

59 What type of matter is a solution?

60 Homogenous Mixtures Also called solutions. Solutions are composed of: 1.Solute: what is dissolved 2. Solvent: what dissolves the solute.

61 Physical Separation Techniques Separation Technique Heterogenous Mixture Homogenous Mixture What physical properties are used? Filtration Extraction Distillation Chromotography

62 Physical Separation of Mixtures: Extraction 1.Extraction- separating substances from one another based on their unique physical properties. 2.Based on these examples what type of mixture is best separated using extraction? Solubility allows us to separate oil from water. What property did you use to separate iron filings from sand and salt.?

63 Physical Separation of Mixtures: Filtration Used to separate a solid from a liquid in the mixture. What type of mixture would use filtration? What physical properties are used during filtration?

64 Physical Separation of Mixtures Distillation Separation of liquids or a solid and liquid in a mixture by their differences in boiling points. What type of mixture would use distillation? Ex. Ethanol (78 0C) and Water (1000C)

65 Chromotography Separates homogenous mixtures based on solubility. Chromotography has two phases: -Stationary Phase: solid Mobile Phase: liquid or gas Substances in mixture will separate based on their degree of solubility toward the mobile phase. What type of mixture is best for chromotography?

66 Bell Ringer Identify as a chemical or physical change a.moldy cheese b.dew in the morning c.leaves turning colors in the fall d.sublimation of dry ice. e.recycling aluminum f.combustion of fossil fuels

67 Changes in Matter and Forces.

68 Phase Changes

69 Mixture Separation Lab: Is considered incomplete until ALL sections of the lab report are filled out.

70 Matter and Energy I can…. Establish a relationship between changes in matter, the forces involved, and the flow of energy.

71 Phases of Matter

72 Phase Changes

73 Thermochemistry Study of energy changes when matter undergoes a physical or chemical change.

74 Bell Ringer 1. Using your states of matter table what is the relationship between the following: intermolecular forces and kinetic energy? 2. Complete the table below using the states of matter table and phases of matter diagram Changes in state of matter Kinetic Energy: Absorbed or Released Intermolecular Forces: Strengthened or Weakened evaporation of water condensation of alcohol deposition of copper melting of ice cream

75 Molecular Kinetic Theory: Establishes a relationship between energy flow, speed of particles, and intermolecular forces during physical changes.

76 Particles in Matter The particles that make-up matter are in constant motion. The particles speed of motion depends upon?

77 Heat Energy Heat Energy (q) = Energy that is transferred between matter of different temperatures. Unit for Energy: Joules (J) or calories (cal) 1 J = cal Energy does not have mass or volume, therefore it is NOT classified as matter. How does heat energy flow between objects?

78 Heat Energy Flow Heat energy flowing between objects: System: The matter you are studying/measuring. Surrounding : The matter (environment) around the system. Endothermic Process: When heat is absorbed by the system. Exothermic Process: When heat is released by the system.

79 Heat Energy What does heat energy affect? Heat Energy

80 Heat energy affects the: -speed of particles -strength of the intermolecular forces Heat Energy

81 Temperature Scales Visionlearning.com Temperature only measures the heat energy that alters the speed of particles. Scientist prefer the Kelvin (K) and Celsius ( o C) scales

82 Temperature and Heat Energy Heat Energy OCOC

83 Conservation of Matter and Energy Matter: Matter undergoes changes, but the atoms are conserved as a whole or as parts. Energy: Energy is also conserved during changes that matter undergoes. If energy increases for a system, then its surroundings must decrease in energy by the same amount.

84

85 General Chemistry stops here.

86 Heat Capacity Heat Capacity: The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a substance 1.0 o C. What does heat capacity depend upon?

87 Specific Heat Capacity Specific Heat Capcity: The amount of heat it takes to raise 1g of a substance 1 0 C.

88 Specific Heat Capacity Problems: 1.6,000 cal (1 sig. fig) 2.100,000 J (1 sig. fig) 3.120,000 J (2 sig fig) 4.8.0x10 2 J (2 sig figs) cal/g o C (1 sig. fig) 6.390J/kg o C (2 sig. figs) 7.140J/kgK (2 sig figs) J/kgK (2 sig figs) 9.1 g (1 sig fig) g (1 sig. fig)

89 Specific Heat Calculations

90 Specific Heat Capacity Problems:

91 Specific Heats of Common Substances Substances Specific Heat J/g* 0 C Specific Heat Cal/g* 0 c water Grain alcohol ice steam aluminum silver mercury

92 Specific Heat Calculations The temperature of a 95.4 g piece of copper increases from 25.0 o C to 48.0 o C when the copper absorbs 849 Joules of heat. What is the specific heat of copper?

93 Specific Heat Calculations How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 250.0g of mercury to 52 o C?

94 Conservation of Matter and Energy Matter: Matter undergoes changes, but the atoms are conserved as a whole or as parts. Energy: Energy is also conserved during changes that matter undergoes. If energy increases for a system, then its surroundings must decrease in energy by the same amount.

95 Physical Change: Energy Diagrams catalog.flatworldknowledge.com Enthalpy (H):The heat content of a system at constant pressure. H: change in heat content before and after a change H = heat energy (q)

96 Physical Change: Energy Diagrams catalog.flatworldknowledge.com Exothermic: heat content before change< heat content after change heat energy (change in heat content) is negative, q- Endothermic: heat content before change> heat content after change heat energy (change in heat content) is positive, q+

97 Bell Ringer 1.What is the difference between heat energy (q) and specific heat energy (C)? 2.When J of energy is absorbed by a 42.1 g sample of silver the temperature increases by 15.0 o C. What is the specific heat of silver? 3. If an 8.8 gram sample of aluminum increases in temperature from 25 o C to 55 o C how much heat was absorbed by the aluminum sample?

98 Specific Heats of Common Substances Substances Specific Heat J/g* 0 C Specific Heat Cal/g* 0 c water Grain alcohol ice steam aluminum iron silver mercury

99 Infinite Campus Update: Mixture Separation Techniques Worksheet Mixture Separation Lab Matter and Change Review (optional) Scientific Measurement and Matter Exam

100 Online Textbook Registration Due on Tuesday, September 21 st for an extra point on last exam!

101 Ice Cream Lab I can predict and apply the following during a phase change: The relationship between energy flow, speed of particles, and strength of intermolecular forces. The difference between an exothermic and endothermic process.

102 Exit Slip Identify with evidence the energy process that occurred when making your ice cream? How did this energy process affect the speed of particles and strength of the intermolecular forces within the system. Why is adding salt to the ice important in making ice cream?

103 Infinite Campus Updated: Heating Curve Diagram Worksheet Specific Heat Capacity Problems Scientific Measurement and Matter Exam

104 Online Textbook Registration Due on Tuesday, September 21 st for an extra point on last exam!

105 Bell Ringer: Assessment What is your goal(s) for this class? What can you do to meet your goals? What can I do to help you reach your goals?

106 Ice Cream Lab I can predict and apply the following during a phase change: The relationship between energy flow, speed of particles, and strength of intermolecular forces. The difference between an exothermic and endothermic process.

107 Ice Cream Lab: Post Lab Qts. What was the system and what was the surroundings in this experiment? Which direction does heat always flow? Was this endothermic or exothermic process?

108 Ice Cream Post Lab Qts.

109 Ice Cream: Post Lab Qts. H 2 O Sugar/Salt Solution

110 Ice Cream Lab: Post Questions

111 Exit Slip Identify with evidence the energy process that occurred when making your ice cream? How did this energy process affect the speed of particles and strength of the intermolecular forces within the system. Why is adding salt to the ice important in making ice cream?

112 Atomic Structure 1.What is an atom composed of? 2. What subparticle(s) are responsible for an atom’s charge? 3. What subparticle(s) are responsible for an atom’s mass? 4. Illustrate an atom, identifying the subparticles and their location within the atom.


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