Presentation on theme: "Objectives: 1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures."— Presentation transcript:
1Objectives: 1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures. 2. I can identify and distinguish between physical and chemical properties.3. I can identify and distinguish between the two types of forces that affect the nature of molecules.4. I can understand and distinguish between physical and chemical changes.5. I can identify techniques used to separate mixtures.
2Daily Objective I can define matter. I can identify and distinguish between the classes of matter.2
6What is Matter? One or more atoms that take up space and has mass. Emphasized that all matter’s properties and changes are due to the chemical make-up and interactions on the atomic level.
7Classification of Matter What are some terms associated with the classification of matter?
8Classification of Matter SubstanceMixtureElementHomogenous MixtureCompoundHeterogenous Mixture
9Classification of Matter Terms: element, compound, mixture, substance, homogenous mixture, and heterogenous mixture.Define/illustrate each term above.2. Use a graphic organizer to show how these terms are connected to matter and each other.
10Infinite Campus Update Density LabScientific Measurement Exam
11Classification of Matter SubstanceMixtureElementHomogenous MixtureCompoundHeterogenous Mixture
15Compound Chemical Combination of substances in a fixed amount. Each compound has a unique chemical formula.Ex. Sodium chloride = NaClThe chemical combination of substances produces new properties.Sodium (Na) Chlorine (Cl) = Salt (NaCl)15
16MixturePhysically mixed together, so each matter’s properties are preserved.Use matter’s individual properties to physically separate from one another.Mixture’s composition can vary.
17Heterogenous Mixures Observe multiple phases (parts) because the substances do not mix well. 17
18Homogenous Mixtures Substances mix so well it looks like one phase.
19Homongenous Mixtures Also called solutions. Solutions: -Solute: what is dissolved-Solvent: what dissolvesSolubility= the ability of the solute to dissolve in the solvent..NaCl + H2O19
21Exit Slip Classify the following examples two ways: Substance or Mixture?Element, Compound, Heterogenous mixture or Homogenous mixture?gasoline at the pump(C8H18 + other hydrocarbons)2. glucose (C12H22O11)3. aluminum foil4. sand
22Classifying Matter: Substances vs. Mixtures Definite chemical make-upElements or compoundsEx. Silicon chip or H2OMixturesVaried chemical make-up2 or more substances physically combinedHomo or Hetero MixturesPizza and salt water
23Classifying Matter: Substances vs. Mixtures ElementPure and simplest substanceOne type of atomPeriodic tableSymbol, (He= Helium)Homogenous Mixture2 or more substances physically combined.Substances are very soluble in one another-mix well – one phaseSubstances in mix properties are preservedSeparated by physical processes.Also called a solutionEx. salt water, kool-aidCompound2 or more substances chemicallycombinedDefinite compositionBreak-down only thru chemical processesSubstances making up cmpd gain new properties.Chemical Formula, H2OEx. iron rustHeterogenous MixtureSubstances are not soluble in one another-do not mix well-multiple phasesSubstances in mixture properties are preserved.Separated by physical processesEx. Oil and water, pizza, soil
25Exit Slip Classify the following examples two ways: Substance or Mixture?Element, Compound, Heterogenous mixture or Homogenous mixture?gasoline at the pumpsalt you garnish fries withaluminum foilsand
26Infinite Campus Update Density LabScientific Measurement Exam
28Classifying Matter represents an atom physical combination of substancesmultiple phasesone phasechemical combination of substancessame composition from sample to sampleindividual properties are preserved when substances combinevaried composition from sample to sampleindividual properties are lost and new properties are gained when substances combinechemical formulasolutionatom’s symbolsubstances dissolve in one another.
32Objectives: 1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures. 2. I can identify and distinguish between physical and chemical properties.3. I can identify and distinguish between the two types of forces that affect the nature of molecules.4. I can understand and distinguish between physical and chemical changes.5. I can identify techniques used to separate mixtures.
33Infinite Campus Update Density LabScientific Measurement Exam
35Classification of Matter Lab Matter’sNameOne or more phases(parts)Abbreviation of matter(Symbol/Formula)# of substance(s)Element,Compound,Hetro Mix,Homo Mix1tap water2Deionizedwater
36Classification of Matter Lab Questions Matter’sNameOne or more phases(parts)Abbreviation of matter(Symbol/Formula)# of substance(s)Element,Compound,Hetro Mix,Homo Mix123456.
37Conclusion: Classification of Matter Lab What was most beneficial about this lab?What was most challenging about this lab?How has this lab helped you make important connections and distinctions between the classes of matter?
38Classifying Matter Lab Students with peers observe various samples of matter and classify them as an element, compound, homo mixture, or hetero mixture.
40Classifying Matter1. Classify each as either an element, compound, homo mixture, or hetero mixturea. soilb. orange juice with no pulpc. copper wired. car gasoline (C8H18)2. What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?
41Bell Ringer: Matter What is the difference between: substances and mixturescompounds and mixtures2. Classify each of the following examples:sugarsugar watergold ringIron rust (FeO)Italian dressing
43Classifying Matter Lab Students re-assess their classification of matter lab examples.
44Classifying Matter Lab O2 = compoundWhy?Because the subscript number represents atoms that are chemically bonded.In this example, two atoms of oxygen are chemically bonded together.
45Chemical vs. Physical Change Chemical Change:Matter’s chemical make-up changes.New matter is produced with new propertiesEx. Iron Rust (FeO)Physical Change:Matter’s chemical make-up stays the same.Matter is the same, so most properties are the same.Ex. Lemonade
46Intramolecular Forces Forces within a compound that holds the atomstogether. Also called chemical bonds.H2O compound
47Types of Chemical Changes CombustionDecayingDigestingBakingNeutralization (acidic and basic chemicals)GrowingSpoiled
48Physical Changes Physical process Substance(s) chemical make-up is preserved so no new substance is produced.Properties are preservedEx. Making Lemonade
49Intermolecular Forces Forces between compounds in a sample of matter. (group forces)
50Types of Physical Changes Most states of matterBreaksDissolvesCrushesCutsAbsorbs
51Infinite Campus 9/10/12 Classifying Matter Lab Classification of Matter Quiz
54Mixture Separation Lab Students work in groups to determine what physical processes they can use to separate out each substance in a given mixture.They will design and carry out their experiment to successfully separate out each substance in the mixture.Reiterate the concept that substances in a mixture maintain their physical properties because their chemical make-up is preserved.
55Mixture Separation Lab (9/11) Purpose: To design and carry-out an experiment that will separate substances from a mixture.
56Homongenous Mixtures Also called solutions. Solutions: -Solute: what is dissolved-Solvent: what dissolves.
57Solubility of Mixtures Solubility: How well substances dissolvein one another.Chemistryland.comSciencephoto.com
58Physical Separation of Mixtures: Extraction 1. Extraction- separating substances in a heterogenous mixture from one another based on their unique physical properties..Physically separate oilfrom water becausethey are not soluble in one another.How could we separateiron fillings and sand?
59Physical Separation of Mixtures: Filtration Commonly used to separate a solid from a liquid in a heterogenous mixture due to differences in size or solubility.
60Physical Separation of Mixtures Distillation Separation of liquids in a mixture by their differences in boiling points. Ex. Ethanol (78 0C) and Water (1000C)
61Chromotography Separates homogenous mixtures based on solubility. Chromotography has two phases:-Stationary Phase: solidMobile Phase: liquid or gasSubstances in mixture will separatebased on their degree of solubilitytoward the mobile phase.
62Physical Separation Techniques HeterogenousMixtureHomogenousWhat physical properties are used?FiltrationExtractionDistillationChromotography
67Matter and Energy I can…. Establish a relationship between changes in matter, the forces involved, and the flow of energy.
68Bell Ringer1. Using your states of matter table what is the relationship between the following:intermolecular forces and kinetic energy?2. Complete the table below using the states of matter table and phases of matter diagramChanges in stateof matterKinetic Energy:Absorbed or ReleasedIntermolecular Forces:Strengthened orWeakenedevaporation of watercondensationof alcoholdeposition of coppermelting of ice cream
71ThermochemistryStudy of energy changes when matter undergoes a physical or chemical change.In this unit, we will just apply energy changes when matter undergoes physical changes.
72Particles in MatterThe particles that make-up matter are in constant motion.The particles speed of motion depends upon?energy and intermolecular forces
73Heat Energy Heat Energy (q) = Energy that is transferred between matter of different temperatures.Unit for Energy: Joules (J) or calories (cal)1 J = calEnergy does not have mass or volume, therefore it is NOT classified as matter.How does heat energy flow between objects?Always flow from hot to cold objects73
74Heat Energy Flow Heat energy flowing between objects: System: The matter you are studying/measuring.Surrounding :The matter (environment) around the system.Endothermic Process:When heat is absorbed by the system.Exothermic Process:When heat is released by the system.74
75Heat EnergyWhat does heat enegy alter?Heat Energy
76Heat Energy Heat energy alters the: -speed of particles -strength of the intermolecular forcesHeat Energy
77Temperature ScalesTemperature only measures the heat energy that alters the speed of particles.Scientist prefer the Kelvin (K) and Celsius (oC) scalesVisionlearning.com
78Molecular Kinetic Theory: Establishes a relationship between physical changes, intermolecular forces, and energy flow.OCHeat Energy
79Physical Change: Energy Diagrams Enthalpy (H):The heat content of a system at constant pressure.H: change in heat content before and after a changeH = heat energy (q)catalog.flatworldknowledge.com
80Physical Change: Energy Diagrams Exothermic:heat content before change< heat content after changeheat energy (change in heat content) is negative, q-Endothermic:heat content before change> heat content after changeheat energy (change in heat content) is positive, q+catalog.flatworldknowledge.com
81Conservation of Matter and Energy Matter undergoeschanges, but the atoms are conserved as a whole or as parts.Energy:Energy is also conserved during changes that matter undergoes.If energy increases for a system, then its surroundings must decrease in energy by the same amount.81
82Pre-APThe following slides pertain only to pre-AP chemistry classes.
83Heat CapacityHeat Capacity: The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a substance 1.0 oC. What does heat capacity depend upon?
84Specific Heats of Common Substances J/g* 0CCal/g*0cwater4.181.00Grain alcohol2.40.58ice2.10.50steam1.7.40aluminum0.900.21silver0.240.057mercury0.140.033
85Specific Heat Capacity Specific Heat Capcity: The amount of heat it takes to raise 1g of the substance 1 0C.
86Heat CalculationThe temperature of a 95.4 g piece of copper increases from 25.0oC to 48.0oC when the copper absorbs 849 Joules of heat. What is the specific heat of copper?
87Heat CalculationsHow much heat is required to raise the temperature of 250.0g of mercury to 52oC?
88Bell RingerWhat is the difference between heat energy (q) and specific heat energy (C)?When J of energy is absorbed by a 42.1 g sample of silver the temperature increases by 15.0oC. What is the specific heat of silver?3. If an 8.8 gram sample of aluminum increases in temperature from 25oC to 55oC how much heat was absorbed by the aluminum sample?
89Specific Heats of Common Substances J/g* 0CCal/g*0cwater4.181.00Grain alcohol2.40.58ice2.10.50steam1.7.40aluminum0.900.21iron0.460.11silver0.240.057mercury0.140.033