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Objectives: 1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures.

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1 Objectives: 1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures.
2. I can identify and distinguish between physical and chemical properties. 3. I can identify and distinguish between the two types of forces that affect the nature of molecules. 4. I can understand and distinguish between physical and chemical changes. 5. I can identify techniques used to separate mixtures.

2 Daily Objective I can define matter.
I can identify and distinguish between the classes of matter. 2

3 What is Matter?

4 What does all matter have in common?

5 What does all matter have in common? Atoms!

6 What is Matter? One or more atoms that take up space and has mass.
Emphasized that all matter’s properties and changes are due to the chemical make-up and interactions on the atomic level.

7 Classification of Matter
What are some terms associated with the classification of matter?

8 Classification of Matter
Substance Mixture Element Homogenous Mixture Compound Heterogenous Mixture

9 Classification of Matter
Terms: element, compound, mixture, substance, homogenous mixture, and heterogenous mixture. Define/illustrate each term above. 2. Use a graphic organizer to show how these terms are connected to matter and each other.

10 Infinite Campus Update
Density Lab Scientific Measurement Exam

11 Classification of Matter
Substance Mixture Element Homogenous Mixture Compound Heterogenous Mixture

12 Classification of Matter
12

13 Elements Smallest type of matter that maintains it properties.
Each element represents a different atom (natural or synthetic) A symbol is used to represent each element. 13

14 Elements 14

15 Compound Chemical Combination of substances in a fixed amount.
Each compound has a unique chemical formula. Ex. Sodium chloride = NaCl The chemical combination of substances produces new properties. Sodium (Na) Chlorine (Cl) = Salt (NaCl) 15

16 Mixture Physically mixed together, so each matter’s properties are preserved. Use matter’s individual properties to physically separate from one another. Mixture’s composition can vary.

17 Heterogenous Mixures Observe multiple phases (parts) because the substances do not mix well.
17

18 Homogenous Mixtures Substances mix so well it looks like one phase.

19 Homongenous Mixtures Also called solutions. Solutions:
-Solute: what is dissolved -Solvent: what dissolves Solubility= the ability of the solute to dissolve in the solvent. . NaCl + H2O 19

20 Classification of Matter
20

21 Exit Slip Classify the following examples two ways:
Substance or Mixture? Element, Compound, Heterogenous mixture or Homogenous mixture? gasoline at the pump (C8H18 + other hydrocarbons) 2. glucose (C12H22O11) 3. aluminum foil 4. sand

22 Classifying Matter: Substances vs. Mixtures
Definite chemical make-up Elements or compounds Ex. Silicon chip or H2O Mixtures Varied chemical make-up 2 or more substances physically combined Homo or Hetero Mixtures Pizza and salt water

23 Classifying Matter: Substances vs. Mixtures
Element Pure and simplest substance One type of atom Periodic table Symbol, (He= Helium) Homogenous Mixture 2 or more substances physically combined. Substances are very soluble in one another-mix well – one phase Substances in mix properties are preserved Separated by physical processes. Also called a solution Ex. salt water, kool-aid Compound 2 or more substances chemically combined Definite composition Break-down only thru chemical processes Substances making up cmpd gain new properties. Chemical Formula, H2O Ex. iron rust Heterogenous Mixture Substances are not soluble in one another-do not mix well-multiple phases Substances in mixture properties are preserved. Separated by physical processes Ex. Oil and water, pizza, soil

24 Classification of Matter
24

25 Exit Slip Classify the following examples two ways:
Substance or Mixture? Element, Compound, Heterogenous mixture or Homogenous mixture? gasoline at the pump salt you garnish fries with aluminum foil sand

26 Infinite Campus Update
Density Lab Scientific Measurement Exam

27 Classifying Matter O2

28 Classifying Matter represents an atom
physical combination of substances multiple phases one phase chemical combination of substances same composition from sample to sample individual properties are preserved when substances combine varied composition from sample to sample individual properties are lost and new properties are gained when substances combine chemical formula solution atom’s symbol substances dissolve in one another.

29 Substances Element Compound Substance

30 Mixtures Homogenous Mix Heterogenous Mix Mixtures

31 Scientific Measurement Exam

32 Objectives: 1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures.
2. I can identify and distinguish between physical and chemical properties. 3. I can identify and distinguish between the two types of forces that affect the nature of molecules. 4. I can understand and distinguish between physical and chemical changes. 5. I can identify techniques used to separate mixtures.

33 Infinite Campus Update
Density Lab Scientific Measurement Exam

34 Classification of Matter

35 Classification of Matter Lab
Matter’s Name One or more phases (parts) Abbreviation of matter (Symbol/ Formula) # of substance(s) Element, Compound,Hetro Mix, Homo Mix 1 tap water 2 Deionized water

36 Classification of Matter Lab Questions
Matter’s Name One or more phases (parts) Abbreviation of matter (Symbol/ Formula) # of substance(s) Element, Compound,Hetro Mix, Homo Mix 1 2 3 4 5 6.

37 Conclusion: Classification of Matter Lab
What was most beneficial about this lab? What was most challenging about this lab? How has this lab helped you make important connections and distinctions between the classes of matter?

38 Classifying Matter Lab
Students with peers observe various samples of matter and classify them as an element, compound, homo mixture, or hetero mixture.

39 Scientific Measurement Exam

40 Classifying Matter 1. Classify each as either an element, compound, homo mixture, or hetero mixture a. soil b. orange juice with no pulp c. copper wire d. car gasoline (C8H18) 2. What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?

41 Bell Ringer: Matter What is the difference between:
substances and mixtures compounds and mixtures 2. Classify each of the following examples: sugar sugar water gold ring Iron rust (FeO) Italian dressing

42 Classification of Matter
42

43 Classifying Matter Lab
Students re-assess their classification of matter lab examples.

44 Classifying Matter Lab
O2 = compound Why? Because the subscript number represents atoms that are chemically bonded. In this example, two atoms of oxygen are chemically bonded together.

45 Chemical vs. Physical Change
Chemical Change: Matter’s chemical make-up changes. New matter is produced with new properties Ex. Iron Rust (FeO) Physical Change: Matter’s chemical make-up stays the same. Matter is the same, so most properties are the same. Ex. Lemonade

46 Intramolecular Forces
Forces within a compound that holds the atoms together. Also called chemical bonds. H2O compound

47 Types of Chemical Changes
Combustion Decaying Digesting Baking Neutralization (acidic and basic chemicals) Growing Spoiled

48 Physical Changes Physical process
Substance(s) chemical make-up is preserved so no new substance is produced. Properties are preserved Ex. Making Lemonade

49 Intermolecular Forces
Forces between compounds in a sample of matter. (group forces)

50 Types of Physical Changes
Most states of matter Breaks Dissolves Crushes Cuts Absorbs

51 Infinite Campus 9/10/12 Classifying Matter Lab
Classification of Matter Quiz

52 What kind of forces are affected ?
.

53 Classification of Matter Quiz

54 Mixture Separation Lab
Students work in groups to determine what physical processes they can use to separate out each substance in a given mixture. They will design and carry out their experiment to successfully separate out each substance in the mixture. Reiterate the concept that substances in a mixture maintain their physical properties because their chemical make-up is preserved.

55 Mixture Separation Lab (9/11)
Purpose: To design and carry-out an experiment that will separate substances from a mixture.

56 Homongenous Mixtures Also called solutions. Solutions:
-Solute: what is dissolved -Solvent: what dissolves .

57 Solubility of Mixtures
Solubility: How well substances dissolve in one another. Chemistryland.com Sciencephoto.com

58 Physical Separation of Mixtures: Extraction
1. Extraction- separating substances in a heterogenous mixture from one another based on their unique physical properties.. Physically separate oil from water because they are not soluble in one another. How could we separate iron fillings and sand?

59 Physical Separation of Mixtures: Filtration
Commonly used to separate a solid from a liquid in a heterogenous mixture due to differences in size or solubility.

60 Physical Separation of Mixtures Distillation
Separation of liquids in a mixture by their differences in boiling points. Ex. Ethanol (78 0C) and Water (1000C)

61 Chromotography Separates homogenous mixtures based on solubility.
Chromotography has two phases: -Stationary Phase: solid Mobile Phase: liquid or gas Substances in mixture will separate based on their degree of solubility toward the mobile phase.

62 Physical Separation Techniques
Heterogenous Mixture Homogenous What physical properties are used? Filtration Extraction Distillation Chromotography

63 pre-AP Infinite Campus (9/10)
Classifying Matter Lab Mixture Separation Lab

64 Bell Ringer Identify as a chemical or physical change moldy cheese
dew in the morning leaves turning colors in the fall sublimation of dry ice. recycling aluminum combustion of fossil fuels

65 Changes in Matter and Forces
.

66 Phase Changes

67 Matter and Energy I can….
Establish a relationship between changes in matter, the forces involved, and the flow of energy.

68 Bell Ringer 1. Using your states of matter table what is the relationship between the following: intermolecular forces and kinetic energy? 2. Complete the table below using the states of matter table and phases of matter diagram Changes in state of matter Kinetic Energy: Absorbed or Released Intermolecular Forces: Strengthened or Weakened evaporation of water condensation of alcohol deposition of copper melting of ice cream

69 Phases of Matter

70 Phase Changes

71 Thermochemistry Study of energy changes when matter undergoes a physical or chemical change. In this unit, we will just apply energy changes when matter undergoes physical changes.

72 Particles in Matter The particles that make-up matter are in constant motion. The particles speed of motion depends upon? energy and intermolecular forces

73 Heat Energy Heat Energy (q) =
Energy that is transferred between matter of different temperatures. Unit for Energy: Joules (J) or calories (cal) 1 J = cal Energy does not have mass or volume, therefore it is NOT classified as matter. How does heat energy flow between objects? Always flow from hot to cold objects 73

74 Heat Energy Flow Heat energy flowing between objects: System:
The matter you are studying/measuring. Surrounding : The matter (environment) around the system. Endothermic Process: When heat is absorbed by the system. Exothermic Process: When heat is released by the system. 74

75 Heat Energy What does heat enegy alter? Heat Energy

76 Heat Energy Heat energy alters the: -speed of particles
-strength of the intermolecular forces Heat Energy

77 Temperature Scales Temperature only measures the heat energy that alters the speed of particles. Scientist prefer the Kelvin (K) and Celsius (oC) scales Visionlearning.com

78 Molecular Kinetic Theory:
Establishes a relationship between physical changes, intermolecular forces, and energy flow. OC Heat Energy

79 Physical Change: Energy Diagrams
Enthalpy (H):The heat content of a system at constant pressure. H: change in heat content before and after a change H = heat energy (q) catalog.flatworldknowledge.com

80 Physical Change: Energy Diagrams
Exothermic: heat content before change< heat content after change heat energy (change in heat content) is negative, q- Endothermic: heat content before change> heat content after change heat energy (change in heat content) is positive, q+ catalog.flatworldknowledge.com

81 Conservation of Matter and Energy
Matter undergoes changes, but the atoms are conserved as a whole or as parts. Energy: Energy is also conserved during changes that matter undergoes. If energy increases for a system, then its surroundings must decrease in energy by the same amount. 81

82 Pre-AP The following slides pertain only to pre-AP chemistry classes.

83 Heat Capacity Heat Capacity: The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a substance 1.0 oC. What does heat capacity depend upon?

84 Specific Heats of Common Substances
J/g* 0C Cal/g*0c water 4.18 1.00 Grain alcohol 2.4 0.58 ice 2.1 0.50 steam 1.7 .40 aluminum 0.90 0.21 silver 0.24 0.057 mercury 0.14 0.033

85 Specific Heat Capacity
Specific Heat Capcity: The amount of heat it takes to raise 1g of the substance 1 0C.

86 Heat Calculation The temperature of a 95.4 g piece of copper increases from 25.0oC to 48.0oC when the copper absorbs 849 Joules of heat. What is the specific heat of copper?

87 Heat Calculations How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 250.0g of mercury to 52oC?

88 Bell Ringer What is the difference between heat energy (q) and specific heat energy (C)? When J of energy is absorbed by a 42.1 g sample of silver the temperature increases by 15.0oC. What is the specific heat of silver? 3. If an 8.8 gram sample of aluminum increases in temperature from 25oC to 55oC how much heat was absorbed by the aluminum sample?

89 Specific Heats of Common Substances
J/g* 0C Cal/g*0c water 4.18 1.00 Grain alcohol 2.4 0.58 ice 2.1 0.50 steam 1.7 .40 aluminum 0.90 0.21 iron 0.46 0.11 silver 0.24 0.057 mercury 0.14 0.033


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