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RENEWABLE / ALTERNATIVE / SUSTAINABLE ENERGY : ANALYZING THE OPTIONS Carbon Sequestration By means of Ocean Iron Fertilization Igal Levine, Alon Henson.

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Presentation on theme: "RENEWABLE / ALTERNATIVE / SUSTAINABLE ENERGY : ANALYZING THE OPTIONS Carbon Sequestration By means of Ocean Iron Fertilization Igal Levine, Alon Henson."— Presentation transcript:

1 RENEWABLE / ALTERNATIVE / SUSTAINABLE ENERGY : ANALYZING THE OPTIONS Carbon Sequestration By means of Ocean Iron Fertilization Igal Levine, Alon Henson and Yotam Asscher June 2010

2 Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization Introduction Could this be a solution ? What is Ocean Iron Fertilization?

3 1. Perform a CO 2 emissions analysis to Ocean Iron Fertilization (OIF). 2. Examine the global potential of Ocean Iron Fertilization Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization Introduction

4 Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization Introduction Raw Materials Manufacture Distribution Product use Closing the loopMethodology Life Cycle Life Cycle Analysis Analysis

5 CO 2 Analysis Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization Iron Life cycle scheme Iron Fertilization Ore Extraction Pre- treatment CO2 Removal Transport

6 Directions Mesoscale Iron Enrichment Experiments : Synthesis and Future P. W. Boyd, et al. Science 315, 612 (2007) Fe/C molar ratio Value used in LCA : 4x10 -4, From the subantartic ocean Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization Introduction How much Iron is needed per Carbon?

7 JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION VOLUME 18, ISSUE 3, FEBRUARY 2010, PAGES Value used in LCA : 10 kg CO 2 e/ton Iron ore production CO 2 Analysis Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization

8 CRC handbook chapter 5 section 12 Reaction Overall reaction energy [kJ/mol] Specific Energy [kJ/ton] Fe 2 O 3 + 2H 2 SO 4 → 2FeSO 4 + 2H O x10 6 FeO + H 2 SO 4 → FeSO 4 + H O x10 6 Fe 3 O 4 + 3H 2 SO 4 → 3FeSO 4 + 3H 2 + 2O x10 6 Average specific energy [kJ/ton] CO 2 e [kg] 4.2x x10 3 But what about the process? Pretreatment - From Iron ore to Iron sulphate CO 2 Analysis Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization

9 9 Int J Life Cycle Assess (2009) 14:480–489 CO 2 Analysis Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization Modeling the process Overall pretreatment 1.3x10 3 x2.5=3.2x10 3 [kg CO 2 e] Reaction / Production 40% Overall ferrosilicon production 2.2x10 4 [kg CO 2 e] Fe 2 O 3 + 4SiO C → 2FeSi CO Overall reaction energy 2.9x10 7 [kJ/ton] 1.6x10 3 [kJ/mole] 8.7x10 3 CO 2 e [kg] Specific Energy

10 Value used in this LCA : 36g CO 2 e/ton-km Transportation CO 2 Analysis Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization

11 CO 2 Analysis Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization Transportation Transportation distance : 10,000km

12 CO 2 sequestered / CO 2 emitted ~ 10 3 CO 2 Balance CO 2 Analysis Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization CO 2 Sequestered [kg] 2x [kg CO 2 ] 3.6x10 2 [kg CO 2 ] 3.2x10 3 [kg CO 2 ] 3.6x10 3 [kg CO 2 ] Transportation distance 10,000 km Quantity of Iron 1 ton Pretreatment Transportation Total Production

13 Global Potential of Ocean Iron Fertilization 1. Upper Limit of ocean carbon uptake 2. Phosphate and Iron demand for ocean iron fertilization Global potential Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization

14 What will be the best location for Ocean Iron Fertilization? Global potential Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, VOL. 14, NO. 3, PAGES , SEPTEMBER 2000

15 How much carbon can we sequester up to 2100? Carbon sequestration until x10 15 moles of carbon Redfield molar ratio for carbon : phosphorous 1 Carbon : 106 Phosphorous Phosphorous available until 2100 assuming linear correlation 6.0x10 13 moles of Phosphorous Phosphorous net annual production in Southern oceans 6.6x10 11 mole of Phosphorous Global potential Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization

16 How much Iron will we need? Global potential Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization CO 2 emitted due to fertilization process 5.1x10 11 Kg = 1.2x10 13 moles of CO 2 Iron needed / Iron production 0.1% Global amount of Iron production until x10 11 ton Global amount of Iron production per year (2007) 1.1x10 9 ton Amount of Iron needed for maximum theoretical uptake 1.4x10 8 ton Global maximum uptake of CO 2 – theoretical model (Caldeira 2010) 6x10 15 moles of CO 2 Journal of Climatic Change “Can ocean iron fertilization mitigate ocean acidification?” L. Cao, K. Caldeira 2010

17 change in atmosphere and/or ocean carbon storage is relative to the pre- industrial values A big improvement? Journal of Climatic Change “Can ocean iron fertilization mitigate ocean acidification?” L. Cao, K. Caldeira 2010 Global potential Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization 2.8x10 17 g = 6x10 15 moles of CO 2 Results (year 2100) modelAtm. CO 2 [ppm] Atm. Change in carbon storage [PgC] Ocean. Change in carbon storage [PgC] Pre-industrial A2_emis A2_emis+OIF

18 1.LCA of iron fertilization shows that carbon emitted in the process of fertilization is ~1000 times less than the carbon sequestered by fertilization between the years (Caldeira). 2.The estimates done in the LCA were done using the most stringent Fe/C uptake ratio, hence in terms of CO 2 emissions, the process is favorable. 3.Further research should be done in order to asses the ecological impact of iron fertilization in the southern ocean. (Acidification of deep ocean, Nutrient depletion) 3.OIF reduces atmospheric concentration but does not eliminate the CO 2 problem. Summary Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization

19 Acknowledgments Prof. David Cahen Dr. Ron Milo Alon Shepon Prof. Uri Pick Dr. Hezi Gildor The end… Carbon sequestration by means of Ocean Iron Fertilization Questions? Summary


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