Background- Carbon Chemical element – Forms four covalent chemical bonds – Comes from latin carbo – coal – 4 th most abundant element on earth – Present in all life forms – Part of hydrocarbons, which include petrochemicals and fossil fuels
Problem-How to prevent/slow release of CO2 into atmosphere? Deforestation is responsible for 20% of the world's annual CO 2 emissions In 2006, U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion -6.5 billion tons Deforestation accounts for 25% of emissions of greenhouse gases; Transport and industry account for 14 per cent each.
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Terrestrial Sequestration Terrestrial carbon sequestration is CO 2 from the atmosphere is absorbed by trees, plants and crops through photosynthesis, and stored as carbon in biomass and soils. There are also carbon sinks, which are forests, croplands, and grazing lands. Oceans are the largest carbon sink on Earth – 1/3 of human generated emissions are entering the ocean Agriculture and deforestation releases CO 2 into the atmosphere and a carbon sink occurs when carbon sequestration is greater than carbon released over time.
Geologic Sequestration Geologic sequestration of CO 2 through well injection. – Problem of well contamination – Water sources could be contaminated as a result – Enhanced oil recovery: pumping CO2 into the reservoir “pushes” the oil out – U.S is the leader: 32 million tons/year of CO2 use for this purpose EPA announced in October 2007 geologic sequestration projects in the summer of 2008. Deep saline formations could hold up to 500 billion tonnes of CO2 in the U.S.A. Most are near point sources of CO2 emission.
Carbon Capture and Storage (C.C.S) Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Carbon dioxide is captured at its source, including power plants, industrial processes and then stored in reservoirs closed to the atmosphere. i.e, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, deep saline formations, deep ocean. Scrubbers at Industrial factories are another example.
Action Plan Plant trees around campus, in a forestation initiative. – Maintain carbon storage in existing trees/plants. – Utilize biodiesel or ethanol instead of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, which generate large quantities of CO 2.
Action plan (continued) Long Term Forest Agreement – UMD signed a Long Term Protection Forest Conservation Easement with the Maryland Department of Natural Resources in April 2001. Currently, the easement includes 70.56 acres of forest. Campus Tree Inventory – More 8000 trees and 1400 acres have been tagged in order to keep track of tree number and type to maximize carbon sequestration. – The campus’ Tree Radar Unit (TRU) can determine root and truck integrity in a non-invasive manner – causing no damage to the trees. Data can be used to guide decisions regarding tree removal and care.
Summary Carbon Sequestration – Mitigating contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming – Three types: CCS, Geologic, and Terrestrial – Best option in the time being Action Plan: Forestation Utilizing clean fuels
Literature Cited 1)R. Lal. “Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security.” Science 304 (5677), 1623. [DOI: 10.1126/science.1097396]. Accessed 11 June 2004. 2)U.S D.O.E. “Carbon Sequestration.” http://www.energy.gov/sciencetech/carbonsequestration.htmhttp://www.energy.gov/sciencetech/carbonsequestration.htm 3)EPA. “Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry.” http://www.epa.gov/sequestration/faq.html. Accessed 22nd February, 2010 http://www.epa.gov/sequestration/faq.html 4)http://uspowerpartners.org/Topics/SECTION5_HEAD-CarbonSequestration.htmhttp://uspowerpartners.org/Topics/SECTION5_HEAD-CarbonSequestration.htm 5)http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw000/uic/wells_sequestration.htmlhttp://www.epa.gov/ogwdw000/uic/wells_sequestration.html 6)Nilsson et al. “The carbon sequestration potential of a global afforestation program.” Climactic Change. 30.3. Accessed 21 st February, 2010. 7)http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/sequestration/geologic/http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/sequestration/geologic/ 8)Howden, Daniel. “Deforestation: The hidden cause of global warming.” 17 May 2007. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause- of-global-warming-448734.html http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/deforestation-the-hidden-cause- of-global-warming-448734.html 9) IPCC. “A More Detailed Analysis of the Carbon Budget and its Change during the Past 20 Years.” 2001. http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/climate/ipcc/land_use/019.htmhttp://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/climate/ipcc/land_use/019.htm 10)“Campus Sustainability.” http://www.sustainability.umd.edu/content/campus/forestation.php