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Environmetal problems related to manure management Greenhouse gas emission from manure stores.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmetal problems related to manure management Greenhouse gas emission from manure stores."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmetal problems related to manure management Greenhouse gas emission from manure stores

2 Global growth in livestock production Increase focus on animal manure production and protection of environment Growth in cattle production per capita, FAO stat Trends in agricultural production

3 Livestock barns From farm to industry

4 Ammonia Greenhouse gases Odour Nitrate leaching Micro-nutrients, heavy metals (Cu, Zn…) Euthrophication Erosion Phosphorous Livestock production - A sources of pollution Uptake in crop Ammonia Greenhouse gases Odour Spreading in field Stored solid manure Stored liquid manure Animal house

5 Agriculture is a major sources of plant nutrients to the ocean

6 Environmental issues related to agricultural production groundwater pollution Agriculture is the only source to Nitrate in groundwater Groundwater is used as drinking water in DK. Nitrate enrichment is considered a health problem, concentration should be lower than 50 mg NO 3 L -1

7 Nitrogen and phosphorous loss to lakes and rivers Enhanced plant growth causes: Colouring of the water reducing depth affected by sun rays Reduces oxygen content

8 N and P increase plant and algae growth in the ocean Increased amounts of decaying organic plant material depletes oxygen content In consequence fish are dying This is a problem in warm years with little wind Ocean – oxygen depletion Duce et al. Science 2008

9 Nitrogen deposition to oceans Hot spots Duce et al. Science 2008

10 Ammonia emission from Danish agriculture Ammonia in the atmosphere originates from Agriculture The total ammonia emission is ca ton or 25 kg N per ha (76% originates from animal production) Ammonia and sulphate or nitrate in the atmosphere forms particulates that is a risk to health When deposited ammonia may change ecosystem that is susceptible to eutrophication

11 Losses of N in relation to N application to fields

12 Odour Reduce value of houses in neighbohood of livestock farm Nuisance of odour is related to: Number of animals & Distance

13 Greenhouse gas emission: Methane and nitrous oxide IPCC 2006 Livestock contributes: 37% of global CH 4 emission 65% of global N 2 O emission (FAO 2006, Livestock long shadow) Contribution to net global warming (Anthropogenic): Methane accounts for 30% Nitrous oxide accounts for 10% (IPCC, 2007) Effect of methane and nitrous oxide: 1 kg CH 4 equals effect of 23 kg CO2 1 kg N 2 O equals effect of 296 kg CO 2 (IPCC 2007)

14 Greenhouse Gas emission from animal manure Manure is the source of the gases: Methane: CH 4 Nitrous oxide: N 2 O Global warming potential Methane:23 Nitrous oxide:296 Content: Manure management and GHG mitigation Driving variables and interaction with climate Mitigation technologies Models for assessing effect of management and technologies Conclusion

15 Livestock or manure Montegny et al. 2006

16 Methane emission Effect of source i.e. solid or liquid manure

17 Nitrous oxide emission from animal manure, low oxygen partial pressure Surface of soil, surface of manure stored - Mosaic of aerobic and anaerobic areas

18 Solid manure store – nitrous oxide (Hansen MN et al. 2005) Uncovered Covered 10 cm below surface Centre Un-covered heap Covered heap

19 Nitrous oxide

20 Farming systems with and without Anaerobic Digestion producing biogas Inlet

21 Reduce methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission, biogas digestion Biogas energy

22 The model include effect of organic matter VS, temperature and storage time VS D is the fraction of manure that is digestible Methane emission is related VS D Methane emisison is related to Temp Methane emission is related to storage time Methane emission is related to inoculum

23 GHG emission - effect of anaerobic digestion of animal slurry in a biogas plan

24 You may use the IPCC algorithm T animal category, S system and k climate region F(T) = annual CH 4 emission for a livestock category T, kg CH 4 LU -1 yr -1 VS(T) = daily volatile solid excreted for livestock category T, kg dry matter LU -1 day = basis for calculating annual VS production, days yr -1 BMP(T) = ultimate methane production for manure from a given livestock category T, m 3 CH 4 Kg -1 of VS T. In your calculations the ultimate methane production rate given in this compendium should be used (Table 3) = conversion factor of m 3 CH 4 to kilograms CH 4 MCF(S,k) = methane conversion factors for each manure management system S by climate region k, %

25 Exampel of use of IPCC equation, fattening pig

26 In your calculations the following model can be used F(T) Annual CH 4 emission for a livestock category T Kg CH4 animal -1 yr - 1 VS(T) Annual volatile solid excreted for livestock category T Kg VS animal -1 yr -1 BMP(T) Biochemical methane production for manure from the livestock category T m 3 CH 4 kg(VS) MCF(S,k)Methane conversion factors for each manure management system (S) and climate (k) %35 There will be on cow or buffalo and about three fattening pigs per unit: animal -1 yr -1 In the IPPC system is used a livestock unit (LU), which in Europe is about 33 pigs produced per year, on dairy cow or several hundreds chicken


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