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Sounds that “move” Diphthongs, glides and liquids.

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Presentation on theme: "Sounds that “move” Diphthongs, glides and liquids."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Sounds that “move” Diphthongs, glides and liquids

3 The important role of movement Articulatory movement = spectral change Articulatory movement = spectral change Spectral change occurs as speakers transition within and between sound sequences Spectral change occurs as speakers transition within and between sound sequences Spectral change plays a significant role in Spectral change plays a significant role in Perception of certain speech sounds Perception of certain speech sounds Overall speech intelligibility Overall speech intelligibility

4 Diphthongs Slow gliding (~ 350 msec) between two vowel qualities Slow gliding (~ 350 msec) between two vowel qualitiesComponents Onglide- starting point of articulation Onglide- starting point of articulation Offglide- end point of articulation Offglide- end point of articulation Articulatory Transition = formant transition Articulatory Transition = formant transition Diphthongization: articulatory movement within the vowel Diphthongization: articulatory movement within the vowel Varies by geographic region Varies by geographic region

5 American English Diphthongs /  / - “bye” /  / - “bye” /  / - “bough” /  / - “bough” /  / - “boy” /  / - “boy” /  / - “bay” /  / - “bay” /  / - “bow” /  / - “bow”

6 /  /

7 /  /

8 What cues listeners? (Nábĕlek et al., 1993) Question: What spectral temporal variables contribute to distinction of /  / vs. /  /? What spectral temporal variables contribute to distinction of /  / vs. /  /? Does the quality of listening environment or hearing ability of the listener influence those factors? Does the quality of listening environment or hearing ability of the listener influence those factors? Control variables Rate (Hz/msec) and Duration (msec) of formant transition Rate (Hz/msec) and Duration (msec) of formant transitionResults /  / is perceived for /  / is perceived for ↓ transition rates of ↑ duration ↓ transition rates of ↑ duration ↑ transition rate of ↓ duration ↑ transition rate of ↓ duration

9 What cues listeners? (Nábĕlek et al., 1993) Results continued, Ambient noise had a larger effect on Ambient noise had a larger effect on ↑ transition rate, ↓ duration condition ↑ transition rate, ↓ duration condition Hearing Impairment differentially affected Hearing Impairment differentially affected ↑ transition rate, ↓ duration condition ↑ transition rate, ↓ duration conditionConclusion Fast, short transitions and slow long transitions can both serve to cue listeners to diphthongs Fast, short transitions and slow long transitions can both serve to cue listeners to diphthongs Slow, long transitions are more resistant to Slow, long transitions are more resistant to Poor listening environments Poor listening environments HI listeners HI listeners

10 From Tasko & Greilick (2010) diphthong duration vs. speech clarity rating

11 Glides (/w/, /j/) & Liquids (/l/, /r/) Degree of Constriction Greater than vowels Greater than vowels P oral slightly greater than P atmos P oral slightly greater than P atmos Less than fricatives Less than fricatives P oral for glides/liquids < P oral for fricatives P oral for glides/liquids < P oral for fricatives Constriction lasts ~ 100 msec Constriction lasts ~ 100 msec Constriction results in a loss in energy Constriction results in a loss in energy weaker formants weaker formants Transition rate faster than the diphthongs faster than the diphthongs slower than the stops slower than the stops lasts ~ msec lasts ~ msec Associated with 1. high degree of vocal tract constriction 2. articulatory transition

12 /w/ Place: labial Place: labial Acoustics Acoustics /u/-like formant frequencies /u/-like formant frequencies Constriction  formant values Constriction  formant values F1 ~ 330 Hz F1 ~ 330 Hz F2 ~ 730 Hz F2 ~ 730 Hz weak F3 weak F3 (~ 2300 Hz) V w V F1 F2 F Freq (Hz)

13 /j/ Place: palatal Place: palatal Acoustics Acoustics /i/-like formant frequencies /i/-like formant frequencies F1 ~ 300 Hz F1 ~ 300 Hz F2 ~ 2200 Hz F2 ~ 2200 Hz F3 ~ 3000 Hz F3 ~ 3000 Hz VjV F1 F2 F Freq (Hz)

14 /j/ VjV

15 Liquids (/l/, /r/) lateral /l/ lateral /l/ Rhotic /r/ Rhotic /r/ Pickett (1999) considers these consonants glides as well Pickett (1999) considers these consonants glides as well

16 /r/ Place: palatal Place: palatal Articulatory phonetics Articulatory phonetics Variable tongue positions Variable tongue positions “bunched” “bunched” “retroflexed” “retroflexed” Allophonic Variations Some suggest “dark” (CV) –very low F3 “dark” (CV) –very low F3 “light” (VC) –F3 not as low “light” (VC) –F3 not as low Acoustics Acoustics Hallmark of /r/ is a low F3 F1 ~ 350 Hz F2 ~ 1050 Hz F3 ~ 1550 Hz F3 ~ 1550 Hz Vowels have F3 above 2200 Hz colored Vowels around /r/ are colored or F3 values lower than usual

17 /r/ VrV F1 F2 F Freq (Hz)

18 Role of F3 transition in /w/ vs. /r/ perception

19 /r/ “coloring” of vowels /  / /  /

20 Articulatory Variability and /r/

21 Point parameterized representation Bunched

22 Retroflexed

23 Between-speaker variation “row” JW39 tp004 “row” JW45 tp004 Very common

24 Within-speaker variation: different context “row” JW37 tp009 “dorm” JW37 tp099 Common

25 Within-speaker variation: same context “right” JW37 tp009 “right” JW37 tp099 Not common, but possible!

26 N=53 normal speakers N=53 normal speakers Not just two different configurations, but a whole family of possible configuration Not just two different configurations, but a whole family of possible configuration From Westbury et al. (1998)

27 How can these vastly different tongue configurations lead to similar acoustic/perceptual consequences?

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29 Summary There is a wide distribution of articulatory configurations for /r/ There is a wide distribution of articulatory configurations for /r/ Different articulatory configurations of /r/ are indistinguishable acoustically and perceptually Different articulatory configurations of /r/ are indistinguishable acoustically and perceptually Different tongue configurations can produce equivalent area functions Different tongue configurations can produce equivalent area functions Some parts of the area function are more critical than others for determining key acoustic/perceptual effects Some parts of the area function are more critical than others for determining key acoustic/perceptual effects

30 Clinical Digression Clinically, /r/ is a difficult sound for children to learn. Clinically, /r/ is a difficult sound for children to learn. Is there anything from our discussion that might suggest why this might be the case? Is there anything from our discussion that might suggest why this might be the case?

31 /l/ Place: alveolar Place: alveolar Articulatory phonetics: Articulatory phonetics: tongue tip contacts alveolar ridge, splitting the vocal tract tongue tip contacts alveolar ridge, splitting the vocal tract Introduces antiformants Introduces antiformants Acoustics Acoustics F1 ~ 360 Hz F2 ~ 1300 Hz F3 ~ 2700 Hz F2 is variable and affected by vowel environment Transition often looks more abrupt than other sounds discussed Allophonic variations Light /l/: CV environment Dark /l/: VC environment

32 /l/ VlV F1 F2 F Freq (Hz)

33 /l/ VlV


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