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“Connecting the dots” How do articulatory processes “map” onto acoustic processes?

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Presentation on theme: "“Connecting the dots” How do articulatory processes “map” onto acoustic processes?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 “Connecting the dots” How do articulatory processes “map” onto acoustic processes?

3 Stevens and House (1955) Model assumes  No coupling with Nasal cavity trachea & pulmonary system

4 Stevens and House (1955) Model parameters  Distance of major constriction from glottis (d 0 )  Radius of major constriction (r 0 )  Area (A) and length (l) of lip constriction A/l conductivity index Figure 1.

5 Comparing model to real vocal tract

6 Stevens and House (1955) Figure 2.

7 Key Goal of Study  Evaluate the effect of systematically changing each of these three “vocal tract” parameters on F1-F3 frequency

8 Formant Frequency (KHz) Point of Constriction (d 0 ) (cm from glottis) F1 F2 F3 Figure 3.

9 Formant Frequency (KHz) Point of Constriction (d 0 ) (cm from glottis) F1 F2 F3 Figure 3.

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11 Point of constriction A/l NOTE  Single intersection between F1 & F2 in most cases Figure5.

12 Point of constriction A/l Figure 5.

13 Point of constriction A/l Figure 7.

14 General Observations ∆ d 0 = ∆ V front & V back ↑ d 0 = ↓ V front = ↑ F2 ↑ d 0 = ↑ V back = ↓ F1

15 General Observations ↓ r 0 = ↓ F1 ↑ r 0 = ↑ F1 When d 0 ↑ (anterior) ↓ r 0 = ↓ V front = ↑ F2 ↑ lip rounding = ↓ A/l = ↓ F1 & F2

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18 r0r0 d0d

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21 20 “normalizing” formant values

22 Clinical Example

23 22 Acoustic variables related to the perception of vowel quality  F1 and F2  Other formants (i.e. F3)  Fundamental frequency (F 0 )  Duration  Spectral dynamics i.e. formant change over time

24 How helpful is F1 & F2? Data SourceHuman ListenersPattern Classifier Peterson & Barney (1952) 94.4 %74.9 % Hillenbrand et al. (1995) 95.2 %68.2 % From Hillenbrand & Gayvert (1993)

25 How does adding more variables improve pattern classifier success?  F1, F2 + F %  F1, F2 + F %  F1, F2 + F3 + F %

26 How about Duration? Nearby vowels have different durations

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28 What about Duration?

29 Some examples

30 What about formant variation?

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32 Naturally spoken /hAd/ Synthesized, preserving original formant contours Synthesized with flattened formants What about formant variation?

33 Conclusion: Spectral change patterns do matter. What about formant variation?

34 What do we conclude?

35 Sinewave Speech Demonstration Sinewave speech examples (from HINT sentence intelligibility test):

36 Selected issues that are not resolved  What do listener’s use? Specific formants vs. spectrum envelope  What is the “planning space” used by speakers? Articulatory Acoustic Auditory


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