3 SonorantsProduction involves a greater constriction when compared to vowels and a quicker more extreme movement of the vocal tract compared to diphthongsMovements and formant transitions slower than all other consonants
4 Nasals Low frequency energy (near Fundamental Frequency)- Nasal Murmer Place of nasal articulation is defined by the 2nd formant transition & place of antiresonances
8 LiquidsLiquids /l, r/Formant pattern steady state and transition is the primary acoustic cueProlongation effects/l/ steady state formantsF1= 360 HzF2= 1300 HzF3= 2700 Hz/r/ steady state formantsSame F1 & F2 as /l/ but much lower F3
10 Stops Acoustic Cues: Silent or low energy interval, burst, transition Silent interval = oral constriction (I.e. closure of lips for /b/); also termed a stop gapVoiced stops can be seen on the voice bar as noise energyBurst = Articulatory constriction is released; energy released looks like noise on the spectogramTransition= formant transition into following vowel
11 Stops Bilabial Stops (/p/, /b/): Alveolar Stops (/t/, /d/): F1 starts at zero & rises to F1 of next vowelF2 starts at 800 Hz & rises to F2 of following vowelF3 increases for following vowelAlveolar Stops (/t/, /d/):F1 same as for bilabial stopsF2 starts at 1800 Hz & rises to F2 of following vowelVelar Stops (/k/, /g/):F1 same as for bilabialsF2 has 2 starting points 1300 & 2300 Hz
14 Stops Characteristics: Voice onset time (VOT)= time between stop release (burst) and the onset of glottal pulsingVoiced= shorter VOTLonger VOT in cleft palate, dysarthric speakers and phonological disorders
15 Fricatives Spectrum of noise is the acoustic cue & formant transition Specific location of turbulenceLabiodental /f,v/Low energy, flat diffuse spectra (front cavity is short with little filtering effect on noise energy)Linguadental /q,ð/Low energy, flat and diffuse spectra (front cavity gives little shaping to spectrum)Lingu-alveolar /s, z/High energy noise spectra, energy lying in high frequencies (above 4 kHz) (front cavity longer contributing to distinctive spectral shaping)Linguapalatal /sh, zh/Intense noise spectra, energy lying in mid to high frequencies (above 2kHz) (front cavity significant resonance effect)
20 Laboratory Part I: SONORANTS: Nasal Consonants Make a wide-band spectrogram of:“mow”, “no”Draw a vertical line where consonant ends and vowel beginsLocate nasal murmer, 1st & 2nd formants, antiresonancesWhat spectral differences do you see?Locate the 2nd formant transitions on both. What are the differences?“Some”, “Sun”Label the same as the first spectrogramContrast both spectrograms
21 Laboratory Part II: Approximants Glides & Liquids Wide band spectrogram of “a ray”, “a lay”, “a way”, “a yea”Label each phone on the spectrogramCompare /r/ & /l/Determine the relative frequency of F1, F2 & F3Determine whether there is acoustic energy present at higher frequencies is low or highWhat acoustic characteristics are different between consonants?
22 Laboratory Part III: Silibants Fricatives Say “sigh” and “shy” at a moderate rateObtain a wide-band spectrogram (at least 8 kHz)Locate & label each phoneWhat are the spectral characteristics that distinguish it from vowels and other consonants?
23 Laboratory Part II: Nonsilibnts Obtain a wide-band spectrogram of “high”, “fie” and “thigh”Label each phoneWhat spectral features distinguish phones?How do they differ from silibants?Obtain a wide-band spectrogram of “ether” and “either”Label