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Glides (/w/, /j/) & Liquids (/l/, /r/) Degree of Constriction Greater than vowels – P oral slightly greater than P atmos Less than fricatives – P oral.

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Presentation on theme: "Glides (/w/, /j/) & Liquids (/l/, /r/) Degree of Constriction Greater than vowels – P oral slightly greater than P atmos Less than fricatives – P oral."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Glides (/w/, /j/) & Liquids (/l/, /r/) Degree of Constriction Greater than vowels – P oral slightly greater than P atmos Less than fricatives – P oral for glides/liquids < P oral for fricatives Constriction lasts ~ 100 msec Constriction results in a loss in energy – weaker formants Transition rate faster than the diphthongs slower than the stops lasts ~ msec Associated with 1. high degree of vocal tract constriction 2. articulatory transition Stephen M. Tasko

3 /w/ Place: labial Acoustics – /u/-like formant frequencies – Constriction  formant values – F1 ~ 330 Hz – F2 ~ 730 Hz – weak F3 (~ 2300 Hz) V w V F1 F2 F Freq (Hz) Stephen M. Tasko

4 /j/ Place: palatal Acoustics – /i/-like formant frequencies – F1 ~ 300 Hz – F2 ~ 2200 Hz – F3 ~ 3000 Hz VjV F1 F2 F Freq (Hz) Stephen M. Tasko

5 /j/ VjV Stephen M. Tasko

6 Liquids (/l/, /r/) lateral /l/ Rhotic /r/ Pickett (1999) considers these consonants glides as well Stephen M. Tasko

7 /r/ Place: palatal Articulatory phonetics – Variable tongue positions – “bunched” – “retroflexed” Allophonic Variations Some suggest – “dark” (CV) –very low F3 – “light” (VC) –F3 not as low Acoustics – Hallmark of /r/ is a low F3 – F1 ~ 350 Hz – F2 ~ 1050 Hz – F3 ~ 1550 Hz – Vowels have F3 above 2200 Hz – Vowels around /r/ are colored or F3 values lower than usual Stephen M. Tasko

8 /r/ VrV F1 F2 F Freq (Hz) Stephen M. Tasko

9 Role of F3 transition in /w/ vs. /r/ perception Stephen M. Tasko

10 /r/ “coloring” of vowels /  / /  / Stephen M. Tasko

11 Articulatory Variability and /r/ Stephen M. Tasko

12 Point parameterized representation Bunched Stephen M. Tasko

13 Point parameterized representation Retroflexed Stephen M. Tasko

14 Between-speaker variation “row” JW39 tp004 “row” JW45 tp004 Very common Stephen M. Tasko

15 Within-speaker variation: different context “row” JW37 tp009 “dorm” JW37 tp099 Common Stephen M. Tasko

16 Within-speaker variation: same context “right” JW37 tp009 “right” JW37 tp099 Not common, but possible! Stephen M. Tasko

17 N=53 normal speakers Not just two different configurations, but a whole family of possible configuration From Westbury et al. (1998) Stephen M. Tasko

18 How can these vastly different tongue configurations lead to similar acoustic/perceptual consequences? Stephen M. Tasko

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20 Summary There is a wide distribution of articulatory configurations for /r/ Different articulatory configurations of /r/ are indistinguishable acoustically and perceptually – Different tongue configurations can produce equivalent area functions – Some parts of the area function are more critical than others for determining key acoustic/perceptual effects Stephen M. Tasko

21 Clinical Digression Clinically, /r/ is a difficult sound for children to learn. Is there anything from our discussion that might suggest why this might be the case? Stephen M. Tasko

22 /l/ Place: alveolar Articulatory phonetics: – tongue tip contacts alveolar ridge, splitting the vocal tract – Introduces antiformants Acoustics – F1 ~ 360 Hz – F2 ~ 1300 Hz – F3 ~ 2700 Hz – F2 is variable and affected by vowel environment – Transition often looks more abrupt than other sounds discussed – Allophonic variations Light /l/: – CV environment Dark /l/: – VC environment Stephen M. Tasko

23 /l/ VlV F1 F2 F Freq (Hz) Stephen M. Tasko

24 /l/ VlV Stephen M. Tasko


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