Parallels in English and Spanish Reading Equity Bilingual and ELL Learners Regardless of Model Regardless of Model Teaching for Transfer
What is transfer? "transfer" The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguisticmetacognitive metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Teaching for Transfer
Bilingual/ELL Model This is Reliant This is Reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used. Working within two language systems (Biliteracy), students' metalinguistic metalinguistic and metacognitive metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. Teaching for Transfer
L1 and L2 Co-exist Concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both co-exist with flexibility In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" "rules" and the realization of their applicability applicability to the new language specific tasks specific tasks are necessary. Teaching for Transfer
Biliteracy to whatever degree... Describes children’s literacy competencies in the two languages … to whatever degree … Teaching for Transfer Simultaneous Successive L1 L2 Reading Instruction
Key Findings Teaching for Transfer Instructional Equity Focused Targeted Systematic
systematic Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence appropriate sequence of skills is critical. Standards must be authentic authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English. ELAR and SLAR ELAR and SLAR Equity Conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language.
English and Spanish look very similar on the surface Similar Alphabets Letter/SoundsDirectionalityCognates However, the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Equity
Syllable Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. syllable The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. visual word recognition Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. Equity
Transparency no sight words - Spanish presents a high level of orthographic transparency - no sight words - for decoding. Orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus needs to quickly move to fluency and comprehension. frequency words No sight words. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. No sight words. Equity
Reading Methodology and Development “Sight" words are defined as words that are not sounded out (not decodable) such as "are" or "one." Spanish decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language influence reading methodology and development. Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content.
Strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension transfer those skills to English Extent of transfer determined by the strength of development in L1
Transfer matters occur within specific fundamentals of Language Common to Spanish and English; Within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and In fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. Extent of transfer determined by the strength of development in L1 Equity
1. Common to Spanish and English Cognates My favorito animal SOUNDS /m/ /l/ /n/ LETTERS a e i o u Transfer matters occur within specific fundamentals of Language
Key Findings Teaching for Transfer Instructional Equity Focused Targeted Systematic L1 or L2 Equity
An Acceleration Plan An Acceleration Plan PRIORITIZES SKILLS PEARSON EQUITY Oral language Emphasis on Oral language reading material Provides an abundance of student reading material Contextualized Contextualized Vocabulary Development Focus on Concept Development word-reading strategies Focus on word-reading strategies Architectural Design Aligns Language Arts Reading TEKS to Calle de Lectura/Reading Street Side by Side Authentic to L1/L2 - SLAR Variety of literature Developed from beginning K/1 st Readiness Text Upcoming Prek Program
Intermediate and Newcomers Instruction delivered with an Acceleration Plan that prioritizes skills high interest, high motivation student reading material An abundance of high interest, high motivation student reading material; early reading skills in Spanish; A focus on early reading skills in Spanish; Critical Critical fluency; and A bridge for teachers to connect transferable skills between Spanish and English.
Pearson Instructional Equity Authentic to the TEKS Authentic to the specific L1 and L2 Priority Areas Critical Fluency High Motivation & Interest Level Reading in L1 and L2 Literature & Content ELL Handbook Transfer Skills Instructional Equity Focused Targeted Systematic L1 or L2
Instructional Equity The Path to Literacy Success Parallels in English and Spanish Reading Dr. Elena Izquierdo UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT EL PASO
23 Conventions of English VOWELS IN ENGLISH 5 written vowels … AND ? How many vowel sounds? What do we need to know?
English Vowels a e i o u … /i/ meat /u/ pool / I / mitt / U / pull /e I / mate / Λ / /ou/ oat /ε/ met / Ə / /æ/ mat /a/ pot / ɔ /caught Izquierdo, 2001
New sounds …to a e i o u … /i/ meat /u/ pool / I / mitt / U / pull /e I / mate /ou/ oat /ε/ met / Ə / mutt /æ/ mat /a/ pot / ɔ /caught Izquierdo, 2001
Two Phonological Systems; Two Grammar Systems; and Two Semantic Systems 26 Syntactic Semantic L1 & L2 Graphophonics L1 & L2
53 Spanish The natural process utilizes the syllable as the pivotal point of departure for literacy development. “Spanish is a syllabic language” … that is how initial reading has been developed and taught. ma me mi mo mu Mi mamá me mima. What do we need to know? Oral language
28 Spanish The syllable is the nucleus for defining how to read words, how to spell words, where to divide words, where to accentuate a word, and how to make simple sentences. What do we need to know?
29 English In English, “sounding out” is done by separating individual sounds. ca t /k/ /æ/ /t/ Spanish When “sounding out” in Spanish it is done through syllables: Mamá ma - má manzana man - za -na sol sol “Sounding Out” What do we need to know?