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Slide 4-1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Computer Organization.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 4-1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Computer Organization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 4-1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Computer Organization

2 Slide 4-2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Stored Program Computers and Electronic Devices Patter n Fixed Electronic Device Variable Program Stored Program Device Jacquard Loom

3 Slide 4-3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Program Specification int a, b, c, d;... a = b + c; d = a - 100; Source ; Code for a = b + c load R3,b load R4,c add R3,R4 store R3,a ; Code for d = a - 100 load R4,=100 subtract R3,R4 store R3,d Assembly Language

4 Slide 4-4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Machine Language ; Code for a = b + c load R3,b load R4,c add R3,R4 store R3,a ; Code for d = a - 100 load R4,=100 subtract R3,R4 store R3,d Assembly Language 10111001001100…1 10111001010000…0 10100111001100…0 10111010001100…1 10111001010000…0 10100110001100…0 10111001101100…1 Machine Language

5 Slide 4-5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 The von Neumann Architecture Control Unit (CU) Central Processing Unit (CPU) Device Address Bus Data Bus Arithmetical Logical Unit (ALU) Primary Memory Unit (Executable Memory)

6 Slide 4-6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 The ALU R1 R2 Rn... Status Registers Functional Unit Left Operand Right Operand Result To/from Primary Memory load R3,b load R4,c add R3,R4 store R3,a

7 Slide 4-7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Control Unit 3046 3050 3054 3058 Primary Memory Fetch Unit Decode Unit Execute Unit PC IR Control Unit load R3,b load R4,c add R3,R4 store R3,a 10111001001100…1 10111001010000…0 10100111001100…0 10111010001100…1 load R4, c 3050

8 Slide 4-8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Control Unit Operation PC = ; IR = memory[PC]; haltFlag = CLEAR; while(haltFlag not SET) { execute(IR); PC = PC + sizeof(INSTRUCT); IR = memory[PC]; // fetch phase }; Fetch phase: Instruction retrieved from memory Execute phase: ALU op, memory data reference, I/O, etc.

9 Slide 4-9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Primary Memory Unit MAR MDR Command 0 1 2 n-1 123498765 Read Op: 1234 1. Load MAR with address read 2. Load Command with “read” 98765 3. Data will then appear in the MDR

10 Slide 4-10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 The Device-Controller-Software Relationship Application Program Device Controller Device Software in the CPU Abstract I/O Machine Device manager Program to manage device controller Supervisor mode software

11 Slide 4-11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Device Controller Interface Command Status Data 0 Data 1 Data n-1 Logic busydoneError code... busy done 0 0 idle 0 1 finished 1 0 working 1 1 (undefined) Busy/done bits used to signal event occurrences to software and software to device

12 Slide 4-12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Performing a Write Operation while(deviceNo.busy || deviceNo.done) ; deviceNo.data[0] = deviceNo.command = WRITE; while(deviceNo.busy) ; deviceNo.done = TRUE; Devices much slower than CPU CPU waits while device operates Would like to multiplex CPU to a different process while I/O is in process

13 Slide 4-13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 CPU-I/O Overlap CPU Device … Ready Processes CPU Device … Ready Processes I/O Operation CPU Device … Ready Processes Uses CPU

14 Slide 4-14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Determining When I/O is Complete CPU Device Interrupt Pending CPU incorporates an “interrupt pending” flag When device.busy  FALSE, interrupt pending flag is set Hardware “tells” OS that the interrupt occurred Interrupt handler part of the OS makes process ready to run

15 Slide 4-15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Control Unit with Interrupt (Hardware) PC = ; IR = memory[PC]; haltFlag = CLEAR; while(haltFlag not SET) { execute(IR); PC = PC + sizeof(INSTRUCT); IR = memory[PC]; if(InterruptRequest) { memory[0] = PC; PC = memory[1] }; memory[1] contains the address of the interrupt handler

16 Slide 4-16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Interrupt Handler (Software) interruptHandler() { saveProcessorState(); for(i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/11/3334464/slides/slide_16.jpg", "name": "Slide 4-16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.", "description": "Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Interrupt Handler (Software) interruptHandler() { saveProcessorState(); for(i=0; i

17 Slide 4-17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 A Race Condition saveProcessorState() { for(i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/11/3334464/slides/slide_17.jpg", "name": "Slide 4-17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.", "description": "Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 A Race Condition saveProcessorState() { for(i=0; i

18 Slide 4-18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Revisiting the trap Instruction (Hardware) executeTrap(argument) { setMode(supervisor); switch(argument) { case 1: PC = memory[1001]; // Trap handler 1 case 2: PC = memory[1002]; // Trap handler 2... case n: PC = memory[1000+n];// Trap handler n }; The trap instruction dispatches a trap handler routine atomically Trap handler performs desired processing “A trap is a software interrupt”

19 Slide 4-19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Direct Memory Access Primary Memory CPU Controller Device Primary Memory CPU Controller Device

20 Slide 4-20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Addressing Devices Primary Memory Device 0 Device 1 Device n-1 Primary Memory Device 0 Device 1 Device n-1 Device Addresses Memory Addresses copy-in R3, 0x012, 4 Load R3, 0xFFFF0124

21 Slide 4-21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Polling I/O … // Start the device … While((busy == 1) || (done == 1)) wait(); // Device I/O complete … done = 0; … while((busy == 0) && (done == 1)) wait(); // Do the I/O operation busy = 1; … busydone Software Hardware

22 Slide 4-22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Fetch-Execute Cycle with an Interrupt while (haltFlag not set during execution) { IR = memory[PC]; PC = PC + 1; execute(IR); if (InterruptRequest) { /* Interrupt the current process */ /* Save the current PC in address 0 */ memory[0] = PC; /* Branch indirect through address 1 */ PC = memory[1]; }

23 Slide 4-23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Detecting an Interrupt CPU Device InterruptRequest flag

24 Slide 4-24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 The Interrupt Handler Interrupt_Handler{ saveProcessorState(); for (i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/11/3334464/slides/slide_24.jpg", "name": "Slide 4-24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.", "description": "Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 The Interrupt Handler Interrupt_Handler{ saveProcessorState(); for (i=0; i

25 Slide 4-25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Disabling Interrupts if(InterruptRequest && InterruptEnabled) { /* Interrupt current process */ disableInterrupts(); memory[0] = PC; PC = memory[1]; }

26 Slide 4-26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 The Trap Instruction Operation S Mode Trusted Code trap UserSupervisor Branch Table 2 31

27 Slide 4-27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Intel System Initialization ROM CMOS RAM Boot Device POST BIOS Boot Prog Loader OS … Hardware Process Data Flow Power Up

28 Slide 4-28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Bootstrapping Bootstrap loader (“boot sector”) Primary Memory 1 0x0001000 Fetch Unit Decode Unit Execute Unit 0000100 … … PC IR BIOS loader 0x0000100

29 Slide 4-29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Bootstrapping Bootstrap loader (“boot sector”) Primary Memory Loader 1 2 Fetch Unit Decode Unit Execute Unit 0001000 … … PC IR BIOS loader 0x0000100 0x0001000 0x0008000

30 Slide 4-30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Bootstrapping Bootstrap loader (“boot sector”) Primary Memory Loader OS 1 2 3 Fetch Unit Decode Unit Execute Unit 0008000 … … PC IR BIOS loader 0x0000100 0x0001000 0x0008000 0x000A000

31 Slide 4-31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 Bootstrapping Bootstrap loader (“boot sector”) Primary Memory Loader OS 1 2 3 4. Initialize hardware 5. Create user environment 6. … Fetch Unit Decode Unit Execute Unit 000A000 … … PC IR BIOS loader 0x0000100 0x0001000 0x0008000 0x000A000

32 Slide 4-32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 A Bootstrap Loader Program FIXED_LOC: // Bootstrap loader entry point loadR1, =0 loadR2, =LENGTH_OF_TARGET // The next instruction is really more like // a procedure call than a machine instruction // It copies a block from FIXED_DISK_ADDRESS // to BUFFER_ADDRESS readBOOT_DISK, BUFFER_ADDRESS loop:loadR3, [BUFFER_ADDRESS, R1] storeR3, [FIXED_DEST, R1] incrR1 bleqR1, R2, loop brFIXED_DEST

33 Slide 4-33 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 A Pipelined Function Unit Function Unit Operand 1 Operand 2 Result Operand 1 Operand 2 Result (a) Monolithic Unit (b) Pipelined Unit

34 Slide 4-34 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Operating Systems: A Modern Perspective, Chapter 4 A SIMD Machine ALU Control Unit ALU Control Unit ALU … (a) Conventional Architecture (b) SIMD Architecture


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