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CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD1 Operating Systems and Computer Organization Chapter 4.

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Presentation on theme: "CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD1 Operating Systems and Computer Organization Chapter 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD1 Operating Systems and Computer Organization Chapter 4

2 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD2 Operating System and Computer Organization Organization of Conventional Computers The ALU The Control Unit The Memory Unit I/O Devices Interrupts Hardware protection

3 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD3 Conventional Computer Organization

4 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD4 The ALU Status Registers Operands Result MDRMAR To/from main memory R1 R2 Rn …. Functional Unit CMD

5 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD5 Memory Data Access Main Memory

6 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD6 Program Specification

7 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD7 Machine Language

8 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD8 Control Unit

9 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD9 Control Unit Operation Instruction Fetch Phase: instruction is retrieved from memory Instruction Decode Phase: instruction is decoded and control signals generated Instruction Execute Phase: ALU op, memory data access, or I/O op is executed.

10 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD10 Control Unit Operation PC = ; IR = Memory[PC] ; haltFlag = CLEAR ; Decode(IR); while (haltFlag not SET) { Execute(IR); PC = PC + InstructionSize; IR = Memory[PC] ; Decode(IR); }

11 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD11 How does it all start? When the computer is started, the control unit branches to a fixed memory location; e.g. initial PC value hardwired. The fixed location is a ROM address that contains a the BIOS loader. The BIOS loader loads a “bootstrap loader” from the disk “boot sector” into memory and branches to the bootstrap loader program. The bootstrap loader may be comprehensive enough to load the nucleus of the OS; Otherwise, it loads a loader program that does so. Once bootstrap phase is done, any program can be run by loading it in memory and loading its initial address in the PC (fetch-decode-exec algorithm)

12 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD12 Bootstrapping Bootstrap loader (“boot sector”) Primary Memory 1 0x Fetch Unit Decode Unit Execute Unit … … PC IR BIOS loader 0x

13 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD13 Bootstrapping Bootstrap loader (“boot sector”) Primary Memory Loader 1 2 Fetch Unit Decode Unit Execute Unit … … PC IR BIOS loader 0x x x

14 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD14 Bootstrapping Bootstrap loader (“boot sector”) Primary Memory Loader OS Fetch Unit Decode Unit Execute Unit … … PC IR BIOS loader 0x x x x000A000

15 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD15 Bootstrapping Bootstrap loader (“boot sector”) Primary Memory Loader OS Initialize hardware 5. Create user environment 6. … Fetch Unit Decode Unit Execute Unit 000A000 … … PC IR BIOS loader 0x x x x000A000

16 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD16 Primary Memory Unit Main (Primary) Memory holds both program and data while they are being executed by CPU. The main memory interface consists of the registers: MAR, MDR, CMD. Unit of information accessed depends on the width of memory and width of data bus. Max. addressing space depends on width of address bus. One request at a time. CPU and I/O devices may contend for memory access.

17 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD17 Primary Memory Unit MAR MDR Command n Read Op: Load MAR with address read 2. Load Command with “read” Data will then appear in the MDR

18 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD18 I/O devices Each I/O device consists of a device controller and the physical device itself. Devices: - storage devices: for permanent storage (e.g. disk, tape) - communication devices: to transfer data from the computer to another machine (e.g. keyboard, a terminal display, or a serial port to a modem or a network).

19 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD19 I/O Devices (cont.) Device controller: hardware that connects the device to the computer. –continuously monitors and controls the operation of the device. – provides an interface to the computer. Device Manager: program (part of the OS) that manages device controllers

20 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD20 The Device-Controller-Software Relationship Application Program Device Controller Device Software in the CPU Abstract I/O Machine Device manager: Program to manage device controllers

21 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD21 Device Controller Interface Command Status Data 0 Data 1 Data n-1 Logic busydoneError code... busy done 0 0 idle 0 1 finished 1 0 working 1 1 (undefined)

22 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD22 I/O Devices (cont.) How does the computer communicate with an I/O device? –device controller has a set of registers: Command reg., Status reg., Data regs., Address regs, etc. –Status reg.: tells the computer the status of device: idle, busy, non functional, etc. –A process can request an operation from device by placing a command in device’s Command reg. –Data regs. Are used to exchange data –Address regs: used to indicate address of source/destination

23 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD23 Performing a Write Operation while(deviceNo.busy || deviceNo.done) ; deviceNo.data[0] = deviceNo.command = WRITE; while(deviceNo.busy) ; deviceNo.done = TRUE; Devices much slower than CPU CPU waits while device operates Would like to multiplex CPU to a different process while I/O is in process

24 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD24 CPU-I/O Overlap CPU Device … Ready Processes CPU Device … Ready Processes I/O Operation CPU Device … Ready Processes Uses CPU

25 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD25 I/O Devices (cont.) How does the computer operate on device controller registers? How does it identify each device? 1. Instruction set of the CPU may have special instructions to operate on I/O devices. E.g. Input DeviceN, DeviceRegisterN, Rn Output Rn, DeviceN, DeviceRegisterN etc. 2. Memory Mapped I/O

26 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD26 Memory Mapped I/O A set of memory addresses are reserved for I/O devices. E.g: 0000 to 3FF in Intel 8086 –each device is assigned a sub-set of memory addresses. –A memory address is assigned to each register of each device controller regular CPU instructions are used to interact with device controller.

27 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD27 I/O Devices (cont.) How does the CPU know when a device controller has completed the requested operation? 1. Polling: CPU continually check status register of device controller 2. Interrupt driven I/O: device controller sends a signal to CPU through the bus. –bus must support interrupts –CPU must include an interrupt flag –CPU instruction set must include instructions to test and set/clear interrupt flag.

28 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD28 Determining When I/O is Complete CPU Device Interrupt Pending CPU incorporates an “interrupt pending” flag When device.busy  FALSE, interrupt pending flag is set Hardware “tells” OS that the interrupt occurred Interrupt handler part of the OS makes process ready to run

29 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD29 Fetch-Execute Cycle with Interrupt PC = ; IR = Memory[PC] ; haltFlag = CLEAR ; Decode(IR); while (haltFlag not SET) { Execute(IR); PC = PC + InstructionSize; if (InterruptFlag) { save current PC; // (e.g. in system stack) PC = AddressOfInterruptHandler; reset InterruptFlag; } IR = Memory[PC] ; Decode(IR); }

30 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD30 Hardware Protection Dual-Mode Operation I/O Protection Memory Protection

31 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD31 Dual-Mode Operation Sharing system resources requires that the operating system ensures a level of protection to the users: –an incorrect program can not cause other programs to execute incorrectly – that a user program cannot have access resource for it does not have permission –some operations should not be performed by user programs

32 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD32 Dual-Mode Operation (Cont.) Provide hardware support to differentiate between at least two modes of operations: 1. User mode - execution done on behalf of the user 2. Supervisor mode (also called monitor mode or privileged mode or protected mode or system mode etc.) - execution done on behalf of the operating system

33 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD33 Dual-Mode Operation (Cont.) Mode bit is added to computer hardware (to CPU) to indicate the current mode. Supervisor mode (0)user mode (1) Instruction set: privileged instructions and non- privileged instructions - privileged instructions can be executed only in supervisor mode. Operating system can execute any instruction. Must insure that a user program can not execute privileged instructions directly.

34 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD34 Going from User Mode to Supervisor Mode When a user program need service from the OS (e.g. open a file, read, write, allocate memory etc.), it makes a system call: i.e. a call to one of the OS functions. OS functions must run in supervisor mode. User processes run in user mode. computer designers had to come up with some kind of approach that would allow a user process to miraculously change the CPU mode to supervisor and branch to one of these OS functions simultaneously. The trap instruction is just the ticket.

35 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD35 Trap Instruction A trap instruction is a machine-level instruction that: –Switches the CPU mode to supervisor –Looks up the address of the target function in a kernel- space trap table –Branches to the entry point of the kernel-space function using the address from the trap table The trick is that the instruction does all three of these steps rather than just one or two. And trap is the only instruction that sets the CPU mode bit to supervisor.

36 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD36 The system call is translated into a trap instruction –the trap instruction is a machine level instruction that is part of the instruction set of the processor The trap instruction will do the following: –change mode-bit to supervisor mode –jump to a trap handler which will determine which OS function is being requested etc.

37 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD37 Dual-Mode Operation (Cont.) Processor must provide the following: A Mode-bit flag Instruction set: privileged instructions and non- privileged instructions A trap instruction

38 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD38 I/O protection Instruction to change the mode must be privileged I/O operation are privileged instructions How can user program perform I/O? It makes a system call to OS. When a system call is made a trap instruction is executed: –sets the mode to supervisor mode –OS function verifies that parameters are correct and legal, executes the request, sets mode to user mode, and returns control to user program

39 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD39 Memory Protection

40 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD40 Example of Memory Protection

41 CS4315A. Berrached:CMS:UHD41 Protection Hardware


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