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Chapter 2: Data Manipulation. 2.1 Computer Architecture 2.1 Computer Architecture 2.2 Machine Language 2.2 Machine Language 2.3 Program Execution 2.3.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Data Manipulation. 2.1 Computer Architecture 2.1 Computer Architecture 2.2 Machine Language 2.2 Machine Language 2.3 Program Execution 2.3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2: Data Manipulation

2 2.1 Computer Architecture 2.1 Computer Architecture 2.2 Machine Language 2.2 Machine Language 2.3 Program Execution 2.3 Program Execution

3 Computer Architecture Central Processing Unit (CPU) or processor Central Processing Unit (CPU) or processor Arithmetic/Logic unit versus Control unit Arithmetic/Logic unit versus Control unit Registers : temporary storage units within the CPU that hold data being processed and are very easily accessible by CPU. Two types of Registers Registers : temporary storage units within the CPU that hold data being processed and are very easily accessible by CPU. Two types of Registers General purpose : Can be used for any task General purpose : Can be used for any task Special purpose : Used for special task e.g Program Counter ( PC) and Instruction Register (IR) Special purpose : Used for special task e.g Program Counter ( PC) and Instruction Register (IR) Bus Bus Motherboard Motherboard

4 Inside the System Unit

5

6 Figure 2.1 CPU and main memory connected via a bus

7 Bus and its types A bus connects parts of the CPU to one another. It also links the CPU to the various components of the system board. A bus connects parts of the CPU to one another. It also links the CPU to the various components of the system board. There are three types of buses: There are three types of buses: Data Bus Data Bus Address Bus Address Bus Control Bus Control Bus

8 Von Neumann Stored Program Concept A program can be encoded as bit patterns and stored in main memory. From there, the CPU can then extract the instructions and execute them. In turn, the program to be executed can be altered easily.

9 Terminology Machine instruction: An instruction (or command) encoded as a bit pattern recognizable by the CPU Machine instruction: An instruction (or command) encoded as a bit pattern recognizable by the CPU Machine language: The set of all instructions recognized by a machine Machine language: The set of all instructions recognized by a machine

10 Machine Instruction Types Data Transfer: copy data from one location to another Data Transfer: copy data from one location to another Arithmetic/Logic: use existing bit patterns to compute a new bit patterns Arithmetic/Logic: use existing bit patterns to compute a new bit patterns Control: direct the execution of the program Control: direct the execution of the program

11 Data Transfer Instructions Load : To fetch data from Main Memory Load : To fetch data from Main Memory Store : To save data into Main Memory Store : To save data into Main Memory Move: To transfer data from register to register Move: To transfer data from register to register

12 Arithmetic / Logical Instructions Add / Sub / Mult / Div / Mod Add / Sub / Mult / Div / Mod And / OR / XOR / NOT /SHIFT /ROTATE And / OR / XOR / NOT /SHIFT /ROTATE

13 Arithmetic/Logic Operations Logic: AND, OR, XOR Logic: AND, OR, XOR Masking Masking Rotate and Shift: circular shift, logical shift, arithmetic shift Rotate and Shift: circular shift, logical shift, arithmetic shift Arithmetic: add, subtract, multiply, divide Arithmetic: add, subtract, multiply, divide Precise action depends on how the values are encoded (twos complement versus floating-point). Precise action depends on how the values are encoded (twos complement versus floating-point).

14 Control Instructions Jump Jump Halt Halt

15 What is a High Level Language and Machine Language A High Level Language is easily understood by human beings A High Level Language is easily understood by human beings A Machine Language Instruction is in Binary format easily understood by the Machine / Computer A Machine Language Instruction is in Binary format easily understood by the Machine / Computer Difference ?? Difference ?? One High Level Language Instruction gets translated into Many Machine Level Instructions thus taking more time to execute One High Level Language Instruction gets translated into Many Machine Level Instructions thus taking more time to execute

16 Example If I write in High Level Language If I write in High Level Language a:= b+c a:= b+c It gets translated into 4 machine level instructions: It gets translated into 4 machine level instructions: 1. Fetch b 2. Fetch c 3. Add b and c 4. Store their result in a

17 Figure 2.2 Adding values stored in memory

18 Figure 2.4 The architecture of the machine described in Appendix C

19 Difference Between PC and IR Program counter (PC) : Program counter (PC) : It contains the address of the next instruction to be executed It contains the address of the next instruction to be executed Instruction Register: Instruction Register: It contains the Instruction that is currently being executed by the CPU It contains the Instruction that is currently being executed by the CPU

20 Parts of a Machine Instruction Op-code: Specifies which operation to execute Op-code: Specifies which operation to execute Operand: Gives more detailed information about the operation Operand: Gives more detailed information about the operation Interpretation of operand varies depending on op- code Interpretation of operand varies depending on op- code

21 Figure 2.5 The composition of an instruction for the machine in Appendix C

22 Figure 2.6 Decoding the instruction 35A7

23 Figure 2.7 An encoded version of the instructions in Figure 2.2

24 Program Execution Controlled by two special-purpose registers Controlled by two special-purpose registers Program counter: address of next instruction Program counter: address of next instruction Instruction register: current instruction Instruction register: current instruction Machine Cycle Machine Cycle Fetch Fetch Decode Decode Execute Execute

25 Figure 2.8 The machine cycle

26 Figure 2.9 Decoding the instruction B258

27 Figure 2.10 The program from Figure 2.7 stored in main memory ready for execution

28 Figure 2.11 Performing the fetch step of the machine cycle

29 Figure 2.11 Performing the fetch step of the machine cycle (contd)


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