3 AMERICAN ISOLATIONISM Isolation was the American foreign policy fromIsolation policy was a return to basic American policy before World War IThe U.S. refused to join the League of NationsThe emphasis in the U.S. was on America—first prosperity and then depressionThe U.S. was angry at Great Britain and France because they did not pay World War I debts to the U.S.America emphasized the reduction of armaments and peaceThe U.S. became more wary of getting involved in Europe b/c the NYE COMMITTEE and historians said that the U.S. had been tricked into fighting in World War I
4 NEUTRALITY ACTSWhen Germany and Japan began to become aggressors, the US passed Neutrality Acts of 1935 & 1937The United States would not trade with any country at warThe United States would not allow their merchant ships to be used to supply nations at war
5 REVIEW: THE STEPS TO WAR Hitler’s coming to power in Germany in 1933 and his renunciation of the Treaty of Versailles caused Europe and some Americans to be afraid of GermanyAfter Hitler took over Austria and Czechoslovakia, the US amended the Neutrality Acts and allowed England and France to buy goods from the US but it had to be “cash and carry”Even after Hitler’s invasion of Poland (Sept 1, 1939), which officially began World War II, the US felt that it could stay out of the warAfter most of Western Europe fell to Hitler in 1940, the US became concerned and increased defense spending and started the first peace-time draft
6 REVIEW: THE STEPS TO WAR The German attack on the USSR causes Americans to believe that all of Europe will fall to the GermansThe US began to help Great Britain with old weapons and loaning them supplies and materials (Lend-Lease)The US helped patrol for German submarines in the Atlantic OceanThe US still remained neutral as most Americans wanted to stay out of the war, particularly the AMERICA FIRST group led by Charles LindberghThe attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese caused Germany and Italy to declare war on the US because of the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis treaties
8 MILITARY MOBILIZATION The war on the home front called for a total commitment to victoryMuch of the focus turned to military mobilizationSELECTIVE SERVICESelective Service registration expanded men after Pearl HarborWomen enlisted as WAC’s and WAVE’sWomen also medical and technical supportBy wars end, some 16 million men and women had servedNearly a million African Americans served in segregated units
9 ECONOMIC MOBILIZATION Office of War Mobilization Economic mobilization called for control over the economies production and consumptionOffice of War MobilizationWAR LABOR BOARDUS created the OWM or OFFICE OF WAR MOBILIZATION to supervise an increase in war productionWAR PRODUCTION BOARD established to regulate the use of raw materialsThe United States also created the WAR LABOR BOARD to control inflation and control laborWent much better than WWI where there had been numerous strikes!!“Rosie the Riveter”Sunbelt Region“Rosie the Riveter” became the famous symbol of women in the labor production forceOver 5 million women joined the labor force during the warThe impact of war mobilization was a major demographic shift of people from Northeast to the Southwest and SouthSUNBELT REGION began to emerge during the war years in California and other areas of the South
10 OFFICE OF PRICE ADMINISTRATION CONTROL OF PRICESOFFICE OF PRICE ADMINISTRATIONTo control prices, the United States established the OFFICE OF PRICE ADMINISTRATIONJob was to control prices and consumption of goodsInstituted rationing on items like gasoline, tires, sugar, and other food stuffs
11 PAYING FOR THE WARMoney for the war was raised through increased taxes and selling of war bonds
13 Competition in the workplace Competition for resources like housing DISCRIMINATION IN WW2Although most people think America was totally focused on the war effort in WW2, there were some distractions with discriminationCaused by massive migration of minorities to industrial centers for jobsCompetition in the workplaceCompetition for resources like housingDETROIT RACE RIOTSMajor violence occurred in 47 citiesThe worst was the DETROIT RACE RIOT in 194325 blacks dead; 9 whites6,000 troops needed to restore order$2 million in property damage
14 A. Phillip Randolph FEDERAL DISCRIMINATION Another problem with discrimination showed itself in demands on the federal governmentIssue led by A. PHILLIP RANDOLPH who was the President of the BROTHERHOOD OF SLEEPING CAR PORTERSProblem was blacks were excluded from well-paying jobs in war-related industriesIn order to get his demands, Randolph proposed a black march on Washington in 1941 if his conditions were not metIn response, FDR issued Executive Order 8802 establishing FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES COMMITTEEIts job was to investigate violations in defense industriesRandolph cancelled marchThe major result was government agencies,job training programs, & defensecontractors ended segregation!Demands?An end to segregation in federal agenciesThe desegregation of the armed forcesEqual access for blacks to defense jobs
15 GROWTH OF THE NAACPA long term result included the NAACP grew from 50,000 before the war to around 500,000 members by war’s end
16 DISCRIMINATION: MEXICANS Mexican Americans also found themselves in the sights of discriminationUnder the BRACERO program, Mexican migrant farmers were allowed into the U.S.Need for increased farm work for the war effort!Mexicans will be attacked by US sailors in Los Angeles in the ZOOT SUIT RIOTSBRACERO’SZOOT SUIT RIOTS
17 DISCRIMINATION: JAPANESE AMERICANS By far, one of the most clearly seen examples of discrimination during World War II occurred with the Japanese-AmericansFDR issued EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 in 1942 which authorized the War Department to declare the West Coast a “war theater”110,000 people of Japanese ancestry forcibly interned in campsWhy? Pearl Harbor had left pubic paranoid that people of Japanese ancestry living in California might help JapanAlthough the government considered relocation of Germans and Italians, the Japanese were the only ethnic group singled out by the government for action!The greatest fear of the Japanese was that they may be potential spiesRepresented the greatest violation of civil liberties in WWINo act of sabotage was ever proven against any Japanese-AmericansCamps closed in 1946In 1988, President Ronald Reagan officially apologized for the US actions and approved the payment of reparations to camp survivors totaling 1.25 billion dollarsIn 1990, Congress appropriated funds to pay $20,000 to each interneeKOREMATSU V. USIn the famous court case, KOREMATSU V. US, the Supreme Court ruled that the court could not second-guess military decisionsIn a nutshell, the Supreme Court upheld internmentsDISCRIMINATION: JAPANESE AMERICANS
18 LECTURE 35.5Allied Turning Pointsof World War II
19 GERMANY FIRST “I shall return” Gen. MacArthur The first major decision made by the Allies for fighting World War II involved focusing on Germany first!!!!!During the first 6 months of the conflict, it looked like the Allied powers would lose the warJapan took major territories in the PacificGen. MacArthurThe US lost the Philippines and Gen. Douglas MacArthur withdrew to BataanBATAAN DEATH MARCH –85 mile forced march of US soldiers who were tortured and eventually burned aliveMacArthur ordered by Washington to leave for Australia gave the famous line “I SHALL RETURN”“I shall return”In the European theater, German Uboats were sinking lots of Allied ships and Allied suppliesGermany was beginning to push east to Stalingrad
20 BATTLE OF STALINGRADThe BATTLE OF STALINGRAD becomes the FIRST major turning point of the war!Stalingrad was the first major German defeat on landGermany will be in retreat from the East here on outStalin became angry at Allies b/c they were so slow in opening a second front
21 OPERATION TORCH DWIGHT EISENHOWER BATTLE OF EL ALAMEIN ERWIN ROMMEL Second turning point of the War was “OPERATION TORCH’ led by Gen. Eisenhower in North AfricaBritish had been fighting German Panzer divisions in North Africa since 1941ERWIN ROMMELGermans were led by military leader Gen. Erwin Rommel (the Desert Fox)BATTLE OF EL ALAMEINImportant battle was the BATTLE OF EL ALAMEIN which signaled the end of German presence in North AfricaBritish forces pushed Rommel out of Egypt all t he way back to Tunisia with massive German casualtiesConsidered one of the major turning points of the warIn Operation Torch, 100,000 Allied troops invaded N. AfricaDESERT FOX
22 DEFEAT OF ITALY GEORGE C. PATTON A turning point in the War in Europe was the invasion and defeat of ItalyInvasion of Italy led by Gen. George C. PattonBritish and US forces victorious after 1 monthMussolini forced out of power and killedRome first capital freed from Nazi control
23 NORMANDY INVASION D-DAY One of the most major turning points was the Invasion of Normandy or Operation OverlordMost Americans refer to this as D-DAYPerhaps the wars most important battleCommanded by General Dwight D. EisenhowerESTABLISHED A SECOND FRONT FOR THE REST OF THE WARGERMANY PUSHED FROM BOTH WEST AND EAST!!!!
24 BATTLE OF THE BULGE VE Day Another major turning point battle involved the invasion into Germany called the BATTLE OF THE BULGEWas Germany’s last major offensiveFrom this point on Germany on the run back to BerlinGermany will eventually surrender on May 7th, 1945Known as V-E Day or Victory in Europe DayVE Day
25 BATTLE OF CORAL SEAOne of the first major victories against the Japanese was the BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEAEntire battle fought with aircraftPrevented Japan from invading New Guinea and Australia
26 BATTLE OF MIDWAY At this point on, the Americans One of the greatest turning point battles in the Pacific was the BATTLE OF MIDWAYAllies had broken the Japanese codeFrom this battle on, the Japanese lost any hopes of attacking the US mainland!!!!At this point on, the Americanswill use an “island hopping”strategy to make their way tothe Japanese mainland!
27 Two major battles that occurred as the US hopped towards Japan included IWO JIMA and OKINAWA Both of these battles produced very heavy American causalitiesPerhaps part of the reason Truman will consider using the atomic bombOKINAWA/IWO JIMA
29 THE CREATION OF THE BOMB threats were fulfilled! MANHATTAN PROJECTThe atomic bomb had been developed during the secret MANHATTAN PROJECT led by DR. ROBERT OPPENHEIMERThe United States successfully tested the bomb in mid-July 1945 at Alamogordo, New MexicoWhen Japan refused tosurrender, the Potsdamthreats were fulfilled!POTSDAMAt the POTSDAM CONFERENCE, the three Allied leaders (Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee) warned Japan without specifics to surrender of suffer “complete and utter destruction”Japan refused removal of emperor but showed signs in secret dispatches it might be willing to surrender if emperor remained on the throneMilitary advisors warn of casualties as high as 46,000 if the United States invades Japan!!!
30 HIROSHIMA JAPAN STILL REFUSES TO SURRENDER On August 6th, 1945 the first atomic bomb called LITTLE BOY was dropped on HIROSHIMA80,000 killed instantly; 100,000 injuredBomb was dropped by the plane Enola GayJAPAN STILL REFUSES TOSURRENDER
31 NAGASAKIOn August 8th, Stalin and the Soviet Union entered the war against Japan as promisedStalin wanted a say in the division of Japan’s holdingsOn August 9th, a second bomb was dropped called “FAT MAN” on NAGASAKI60,000 deadOn August 14th, Japan surrendered and World War II was officially overJapanese surrender aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay
32 TRUMAN’S CONTROVERSEY Arguments for useJapanese refused to surrender.Estimated an invasion similar to D-Day was needed to end war.Estimated Japan’s empire would last 2 years.Estimated Allied casualties at 1 million or more men with huge Japanese losses.Japanese leadership was told of the destructive power of the bombOffered a period to surrender but declined.Arguments opposedAtomic bombs were untested and their destruction unknownHiroshima and Nagasaki were not major military targets.Those killed in the attacks would be Japanese civilians.Radiation poisoning would have negative effects on the population.Nuclear weapons would set a precedent that using weapons of mass destruction was allowable in war
33 WHAT HAPPENED TO HITLER? German cities and major industries being bombed by Allied forcesForces pushing from both sides towards Germany in a race to BerlinBattle of the Bulge—last desperate attempt by German forcesHitler kills himself along with wife Eva Braun
35 THE CASABLANCA CONFERENCE The diplomacy of World War II between the Allies is mainly seen in the four major conferences attended by most leaders of the major Allied nationsFDR and Churchill declare policy of unconditional surrender for “all enemies”Agreed that Italy would be invaded first before opening a 2nd front in France
36 TEHRAN CONFERENCE DISPUTES??? First meeting of the BIG THREE (FDR, Stalin, and Churchill)Allied agreed to an invasion of Western Europe in 1944Stalin reaffirmed the Soviet commitment to enter war against JapanDisputes did begin to arise over the post-war world!DISPUTES???Stalin insisted on Soviet control of eastern Europe and division of GermanyChurchill demanded free governments in Eastern Europe and a strong Germany after the war to preserve balance of power in EuropeRoosevelt acted as a mediator and believed he could work with Stalin to achieve a post-war world peace with the construct of the UNITED NATIONS
37 YALTA CONFERENCE Big Three met to discuss post-war Europe Stalin agreed to enter Pacific War within 3 months of German surrenderStalin agreed to “Declaration of Liberated Europe” which called for free electionsCalled for a world organization to meet in the United StatesGermany divided into occupation zones
38 POTSDAM CONFERENCETruman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee (Britain) meet in Potsdam, eastern GermanyConference disagreed on most issues; war alliance beginning to break down!During conference, Truman ordered dropping of atomic bomb on Japan!