Presentation on theme: "Isolation was the American foreign policy from 1920-1939 Isolation policy Isolation policy was a return to basic American policy before World War I."— Presentation transcript:
Isolation was the American foreign policy from Isolation policy Isolation policy was a return to basic American policy before World War I refused to join the League of Nations The U.S. refused to join the League of Nations The emphasis in the U.S. was on America—first prosperity and then depression pay World War I debts The U.S. was angry at Great Britain and France because they did not pay World War I debts to the U.S. emphasized the reduction of armaments and peace America emphasized the reduction of armaments and peace NYE COMMITTEE the U.S. had been tricked into fighting in World War I The U.S. became more wary of getting involved in Europe b/c the NYE COMMITTEE and historians said that the U.S. had been tricked into fighting in World War I
When Germany and Japan began to become aggressors, the US passed Neutrality Acts of 1935 & 1937 The United States would not trade with any country at war The United States would not allow their merchant ships to be used to supply nations at war
Hitler’s coming to power in Germany in 1933 and his renunciation of the Treaty of Versailles caused Europe and some Americans to be afraid of Germany After Hitler took over Austria and Czechoslovakia, the US amended the Neutrality Acts and allowed England and France to buy goods from the US but it had to be “cash and carry” Even after Hitler’s invasion of Poland (Sept 1, 1939), which officially began World War II, the US felt that it could stay out of the war After most of Western Europe fell to Hitler in 1940, the US became concerned and increased defense spending and started the first peace-time draft
The German attack on the USSR causes Americans to believe that all of Europe will fall to the Germans The US began to help Great Britain with old weapons and loaning them supplies and materials (Lend-Lease) The US helped patrol for German submarines in the Atlantic Ocean The US still remained neutral as most Americans wanted to stay out of the war, particularly the AMERICA FIRST group led by Charles Lindbergh The attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese caused Germany and Italy to declare war on the US because of the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis treaties
The war on the home front called for a total commitment to victory Much of the focus turned to military mobilization Selective Service Selective Service registration expanded men after Pearl Harbor Women enlisted as WAC’s and WAVE’s Women also medical and technical support By wars end, some 16 million men and women had served Nearly a million African Americans served in segregated units
Economic mobilization called for control over the economies production and consumption US created the OWM or OFFICE OF WAR MOBILIZATION to supervise an increase in war production WAR PRODUCTION BOARD established to regulate the use of raw materials “Rosie the Riveter” became the famous symbol of women in the labor production force Over 5 million women joined the labor force during the war The impact of war mobilization was a major demographic shift of people from Northeast to the Southwest and South SUNBELT REGION began to emerge during the war years in California and other areas of the South The United States also created the WAR LABOR BOARD to control inflation and control labor Went much better than WWI where there had been numerous strikes!!
To control prices, the United States established the OFFICE OF PRICE ADMINISTRATION Job was to control prices and consumption of goods Instituted rationing on items like gasoline, tires, sugar, and other food stuffs
Money for the war was raised through increased taxes and selling of war bonds
Although most people think America was totally focused on the war effort in WW2, there were some distractions with discrimination Caused by massive migration of minorities to industrial centers for jobs Competition in the workplace Competition for resources like housing Major violence occurred in 47 cities The worst was the DETROIT RACE RIOT in blacks dead; 9 whites 6,000 troops needed to restore order $2 million in property damage
Another problem with discrimination showed itself in demands on the federal government Issue led by A. PHILLIP RANDOLPH who was the President of the BROTHERHOOD OF SLEEPING CAR PORTERS Problem was blacks were excluded from well-paying jobs in war-related industries In order to get his demands, Randolph proposed a black march on Washington in 1941 if his conditions were not met In response, FDR issued Executive Order 8802 establishing FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES COMMITTEE Its job was to investigate violations in defense industries Randolph cancelled march 1.An end to segregation in federal agencies 2.The desegregation of the armed forces 3.Equal access for blacks to defense jobs
A long term result included the NAACP grew from 50,000 before the war to around 500,000 members by war’s end
Mexican Americans also found themselves in the sights of discrimination Under the BRACERO program, Mexican migrant farmers were allowed into the U.S. Need for increased farm work for the war effort! Mexicans will be attacked by US sailors in Los Angeles in the ZOOT SUIT RIOTS
By far, one of the most clearly seen examples of discrimination during World War II occurred with the Japanese-Americans EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 FDR issued EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 in 1942 which authorized the War Department to declare the West Coast a “war theater” 110,000 people of Japanese ancestry forcibly interned in camps Why? Pearl Harbor had left pubic paranoid that people of Japanese ancestry living in California might help Japan Although the government considered relocation of Germans and Italians, the Japanese were the only ethnic group singled out by the government for action! The greatest fear of the Japanese was that they may be potential spies Represented the greatest violation of civil liberties in WWI No act of sabotage was ever proven against any Japanese-Americans Camps closed in 1946 In the famous court case, KOREMATSU V. US, the Supreme Court ruled that the court could not second-guess military decisions In a nutshell, the Supreme Court upheld internments In 1988, President Ronald Reagan officially apologized for the US actions and approved the payment of reparations to camp survivors totaling 1.25 billion dollars In 1990, Congress appropriated funds to pay $20,000 to each internee
The first major decision made by the Allies for fighting World War II involved focusing on Germany first!!!!! During the first 6 months of the conflict, it looked like the Allied powers would lose the war Japan took major territories in the Pacific The US lost the Philippines and Gen. Douglas MacArthur withdrew to Bataan BATAAN DEATH MARCH –85 mile forced march of US soldiers who were tortured and eventually burned alive MacArthur ordered by Washington to leave for Australia gave the famous line “I SHALL RETURN” In the European theater, German Uboats were sinking lots of Allied ships and Allied supplies Germany was beginning to push east to Stalingrad
The BATTLE OF STALINGRAD becomes the FIRST major turning point of the war! Stalingrad was the first major German defeat on land Germany will be in retreat from the East here on out Stalin became angry at Allies b/c they were so slow in opening a second front
Second turning point of the War was “OPERATION TORCH’ led by Gen. Eisenhower in North Africa British had been fighting German Panzer divisions in North Africa since 1941 Germans were led by military leader Gen. Erwin Rommel (the Desert Fox) Important battle was the BATTLE OF EL ALAMEIN which signaled the end of German presence in North Africa British forces pushed Rommel out of Egypt all t he way back to Tunisia with massive German casualties Considered one of the major turning points of the war In Operation Torch, 100,000 Allied troops invaded N. Africa
A turning point in the War in Europe was the invasion and defeat of Italy Invasion of Italy led by Gen. George C. Patton British and US forces victorious after 1 month Mussolini forced out of power and killed Rome first capital freed from Nazi control
One of the most major turning points was the Invasion of Normandy or Operation Overlord Most Americans refer to this as D-DAY Perhaps the wars most important battle Commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower ESTABLISHED A SECOND FRONT FOR THE REST OF THE WAR GERMANY PUSHED FROM BOTH WEST AND EAST!!!!
Another major turning point battle involved the invasion into Germany called the BATTLE OF THE BULGE Was Germany’s last major offensive From this point on Germany on the run back to Berlin Germany will eventually surrender on May 7 th, 1945 Known as V-E Day or Victory in Europe Day
One of the first major victories against the Japanese was the BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA Entire battle fought with aircraft Prevented Japan from invading New Guinea and Australia
One of the greatest turning point battles in the Pacific was the BATTLE OF MIDWAY Allies had broken the Japanese code From this battle on, the Japanese lost any hopes of attacking the US mainland!!!!
Two major battles that occurred as the US hopped towards Japan included IWO JIMA and OKINAWA Both of these battles produced very heavy American causalities Perhaps part of the reason Truman will consider using the atomic bomb
DR. ROBERT OPPENHEIMER The atomic bomb had been developed during the secret MANHATTAN PROJECT led by DR. ROBERT OPPENHEIMER The United States successfully tested the bomb in mid-July 1945 at Alamogordo, New Mexico At the POTSDAM CONFERENCE, the three Allied leaders (Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee) warned Japan without specifics to surrender of suffer “complete and utter destruction” Japan refused removal of emperor but showed signs in secret dispatches it might be willing to surrender if emperor remained on the throne Military advisors warn of casualties as high as 46,000 if the United States invades Japan!!!
HIROSHIMA On August 6 th, 1945 the first atomic bomb called LITTLE BOY was dropped on HIROSHIMA 80,000 killed instantly; 100,000 injured Bomb was dropped by the plane Enola Gay
On August 8 th, Stalin and the Soviet Union entered the war against Japan as promised Stalin wanted a say in the division of Japan’s holdings On August 9 th, a second bomb was dropped called “FAT MAN” on NAGASAKI 60,000 dead On August 14 th, Japan surrendered and World War II was officially over Japanese surrender aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay
Arguments for use Japanese refused to surrender. Estimated an invasion similar to D-Day was needed to end war. Estimated Japan’s empire would last 2 years. Estimated Allied casualties at 1 million or more men with huge Japanese losses. Japanese leadership was told of the destructive power of the bomb Offered a period to surrender but declined. Arguments opposed Atomic bombs were untested and their destruction unknown Hiroshima and Nagasaki were not major military targets. Those killed in the attacks would be Japanese civilians. Radiation poisoning would have negative effects on the population. Nuclear weapons would set a precedent that using weapons of mass destruction was allowable in war
German cities and major industries being bombed by Allied forces Forces pushing from both sides towards Germany in a race to Berlin Battle of the Bulge—last desperate attempt by German forces Hitler kills himself along with wife Eva Braun
The diplomacy of World War II between the Allies is mainly seen in the four major conferences attended by most leaders of the major Allied nations FDR and Churchill declare policy of unconditional surrender for “all enemies” Agreed that Italy would be invaded first before opening a 2 nd front in France
First meeting of the BIG THREE (FDR, Stalin, and Churchill) Allied agreed to an invasion of Western Europe in 1944 Stalin reaffirmed the Soviet commitment to enter war against Japan Disputes did begin to arise over the post-war world! Stalin insisted on Soviet control of eastern Europe and division of Germany Churchill demanded free governments in Eastern Europe and a strong Germany after the war to preserve balance of power in Europe Roosevelt acted as a mediator and believed he could work with Stalin to achieve a post-war world peace with the construct of the UNITED NATIONS
Big Three met to discuss post-war Europe Stalin agreed to enter Pacific War within 3 months of German surrender Stalin agreed to “Declaration of Liberated Europe” which called for free elections Called for a world organization to meet in the United States Germany divided into occupation zones
Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee (Britain) meet in Potsdam, eastern Germany Conference disagreed on most issues; war alliance beginning to break down! During conference, Truman ordered dropping of atomic bomb on Japan!