What is abalone? Herbivorous marine gastropod Over 70 species of extant haliotid species http://www.americanabalone.net/img/Abalone-400.jpg http://www.usc.edu/org/seagrant/Images/Abalone_CStevenson.jpg
Abalone history in N. America Native Americans-meat, trade material, and decoration Commercial fishery in mid 19 th century Overfishing, disease, poaching, habitat destruction Fisheries shut down
Abalone history in N. America 1980s- first commercial abalone farms in California http://www.fishtech.com/ThailandSymposium1.pdf
Locations Japan Mexico Australia South Africa Korea New Zealand Taiwan China Chile Ireland Iceland http://ww3.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101374/5/628x471.jpg
Locations Japan Mexico Australia South Africa Korea New Zealand Taiwan China Chile Ireland Iceland And of course, California!
Market info http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf California: In 1998 the total amount of abalone produced was approximately 73 metric tons (mt; in-shell weight) of product valued at US$2.4 million (Ebert 2001).
Pricing High pricing in China, Japan, and Koreas In 1994, prices to fishermen in California were $500-600 per dozen for the red abalone. “Abalone can fetch up to $20 per pound or more (Dave Ebert, pers. comm.).” http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf
Life Cycle http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf
Reproduction in captivity Males and females induced to spawn ◦ UV irradiated seawater ◦ Solution of hydrogen peroxide Release unfertilized eggs and sperm ◦ 6-8 million ova out of 11 million ova released become fertilized (from one female!) Fertilize, and division starts within 2 hrs
Reproduction in captivity Eggs hatched and reared through trochophore (16-20 hrs) and veliger (26- 30 hrs) larval stages All early life stages are sensitive, so UV- treated water is used. Though increased temp can increase development, rearing at 15°C decreases risk of bacterial infection in systems.
Production Methods Cage culture system ◦ Rectangular cages ◦ PVC frames covered with heavy gage plastic mesh ◦ Suspended from longline systems or floating docks http://ww1.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101372/5/628x471.jpg
Production Methods Disadvantages: Costs for boat, motor, fuel, access time, and hydraulic wench to lift cages for feeding, maintenance, and harvest And other things we’ve discussed in class http://ww3.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101370/5/628x471.jpg
Production Methods Land-based, flow- through tank system: ◦ Concrete or fiberglass tanks of 1000-2000 capacity ◦ Tanks plumbed for flow-through seawater and forced air http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/repository/calag/img5104p7a.jpg
Production Methods Disadvantages: Operate seawater pumping Aeration systems http://ww4.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101371/7/628x471.jpg http://ww4.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101375/5/628x471.jpg
Feeds and Feeding Natural diets: ◦ Eggs and larvae: yolk reserves ◦ Juveniles: benthic microalgae (diatoms) ◦ Adults: kelp Artificial diets: ◦ 30-50% protein: fish meal, milk by-products ◦ 30-40% carbs: seaweed ◦ 5-6% each of fat, fiber, and ash ◦ Sometimes mineral and vitamin supplements
Water Chemistry Eggs and larvae: 15°C (59°F) Juveniles: 15 to 18°C Salinity: 30-35 ppt
Advantages: High densities High production 65% edible part is protein Other nutrients: Selenium, magnesium, iron, and omega-3 fats http://ww2.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101373/5/628x471.jpg
Disadvantages: In both production systems, it takes 3-4 years for abalone to grow to market size, about 7-9 cm. Growing to market size is the most capital intensive and time-consuming part of this aquaculture Labor and feed costs A lot of the animal is shell
Nom nom nom http://ww2.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101369/5/628x471.jpg http://thumbs.ifood.tv/files/images/editor/images/abalone%20ceviche.jpg https://encrypted-tbn2.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTJiScvsjupcWedGctjL9D3kgTLBEX0MB1AtYNWbbh2msii7YOZ7A