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African-American History Since the Civil War dr. Liz Bryant.

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Presentation on theme: "African-American History Since the Civil War dr. Liz Bryant."— Presentation transcript:

1 African-American History Since the Civil War dr. Liz Bryant

2 1920s: Emergence of the “New Negro” Confidence after WW1 Believed they should be treated as first-class citizens

3 White Reaction to the New Negro

4 Lynchings Increase

5 New Negro Unwilling to accept such conditions

6 Du Bois and the Crisis

7 Marcus Garvey

8 Harlem Renaissance Time of great cultural achievement in the US Centered in Harlem (New York)

9 Harlem Renaissance Includes music, poetry, writing, visual arts

10 Many Cultural Achievements Were Segregated… Cotton Club White audience Black performers

11 Cotton Club

12 Harlem Renaissance To be commercially successful meant attracting a white audience Many elements of black culture were adapted into the white mainstream

13 Jazz

14 Harlem Renaissance Many whites learned about the struggle of African-Americans through the arts

15 “Jazz Age”

16 Jazz Age

17 Musical styles of African-Americans influenced whites so much that the 1920s began to be referred to as the “Jazz Age”

18 October 29, 1929

19 Stock Market Crash

20 October 29, Stock Market crashes Marks the beginning of the Great Depression Jazz Age comes to a quick end

21 AFRICAN-AMERICANS AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION

22 African-Americans during the Great Depression

23

24 The Great Depression ALL Americans are impacted Blacks are hit especially hard % of African-Americans are unemployed

25 Black Leadership during the Great Depression Forced to focus most of their attention on economic issues – Layoffs – Housing foreclosures

26 African-Americans during the Great Depression

27 Rural blacks are impacted the most 2 million black farmers – 2/3 made no money or went into debt

28 African-Americans during the Great Depression Many sharecroppers/ tenant farmers abandoned their houses/ farms and went into the cities searching for work

29 “Black” Jobs Now Became “White”

30 “Black” Jobs Became Whites Blacks were fired so that whites could be employed – Domestic positions

31 Racism Increases during This Era…

32 What Happened If It Was Thought A White Job Was Taken…

33 Increase in Lynchings lynchings lynchings

34 Jessie Daniel Ames

35 Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching

36

37 Founded by Ames Ames believed it was the duty of women’s organizations to solve racial problems

38 Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching Challenged the notion that blacks were lynched for raping white women Said lynchings instead occurred because of racial hatred

39 Pledge of the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching We declare lynching an indefensible crime, destructive of all principles of government, hostile to every ideal of religion and humanity, degrading and debasing to every person involved. We pledge ourselves to crate a new public opinion in the South which will not condone for any reason whatever acts of the mob or lynchers."

40 Pledge Signed by over 40,000 women

41 Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching Convinced white women to go into their communities to speak out against lynchings Faced opposition to this and were often threatened for their work

42 Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching Successful first year since the Civil War that no lynchings were recorded in America

43 Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching Did not believe in a federal anti-lynching law Put them in conflict with African-American groups such as the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)

44 Billie Holiday

45 American jazz singer performs “Strange Fruit” for the first time song is released as a single; huge commercial success; sells over 1 million copies

46 BRINGING AWARENESS TO THE PROBLEM DOESN’T STOP THE HARASSMENT…

47 The Scottsboro Boys

48

49 The Accusers

50 Scottsboro Boys African-American boys were arrested after being accused of raping two white women Alabama

51 The Scottsboro Boys Accusers were likely prostitutes Accused them to protect themselves from being charged for crossing state lines to perform an illegal activity

52 Scottsboro Boys No evidence of rape All white-jury Trial took one day

53 Verdict GUILTY 8 of the 9 were sentenced to death 9 th was sentenced to life in prison (12 years old)

54 Reaction This case receives much media attention Demonstrates the prejudice against African- Americans at this time

55 Reaction Communist Party works to overturn the verdicts

56

57 The Case Was Brought Before the Supreme Court Powell v. Alabama Overturned guilty verdicts Said the boys had not received adequate legal council

58 The Boys Go Back to Alabama And the state begins to retry them…

59 Haywood Patterson

60 Tried Convicted Judge set aside verdict because he did not believe Patterson was guilty Judge- defeated in the next election

61 Clarence Norris

62 Tried, convicted Case went to the Supreme Court

63 Norris v Alabama Supreme Court ruled the verdict was illegal because no blacks were allowed to serve on the jury

64 Scottsboro Boys The state kept trying and convicting them Defendants kept appealing their sentences

65 Scottsboro Boys November 21, Alabama grants pardons to all of the Scottsboro boys

66 The Communist Party One of the few interracial organizations concerned about the plight of blacks during the Great Depression Concerned especially with rural blacks Organized interracial unions Held demonstrations asking for jobs and relief

67 Franklin D. Roosevelt

68 Franklin D Roosevelt 1932 Election Slogan: Happy Days Are Here Again

69

70 1932 Election Prior to this election, blacks had primarily voted for the Republicans BUT FDR seemed as if he could bring relief from the Depression Many blacks voted for Roosevelt Marks the beginning of when blacks turn to the Democratic Party (trend which continues)

71 FDR and African-Americans Had some black advisors Entertained blacks at the White House Seemed to give African-Americans a sense of belonging

72 Eleanor Roosevelt

73 Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt

74 Eleanor Roosevelt Very liberal Spoke out against racial injustices in the US Had many black friends: – Walter White, head of the NAACP

75 Marian Anderson

76

77 On a national tour Supposed to give a concert at Constitution Hall in Washington DC Constitution Hall- controlled by the Daughters of the American Revolution

78 Marian Anderson Told that Constitution Hall was limited only to white performers Eleanor Roosevelt gets involved (is a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution) DAR- refuses to budge

79 Marian Anderson Eleanor Roosevelt instead gets permission for Anderson to perform in front of the Lincoln Memorial

80 FDR and African-Americans New Deal programs were open to Americans of all races Access to: – Jobs – Relief – Farm subsidies – Education – Trainings

81 FDR and African-Americans New Deal programs still gave preferential treatment to whites

82 FDR and African-Americans Social Security- did not provide coverage to domestic workers 2/3 of employed blacks were not covered by this program

83 A 1935 poster announcing Social Security program.

84 FDR and African-Americans Would not put any race-specific language in his bills Afraid of losing the support of Southern Senators and Congressmen

85 FDR and African-Americans Would not publicly support a federal anti- lynching law

86 FDR and African-Americans Even though there was discrimination, blacks still saw that the government was doing something for them Felt as if they were included in mainstream American life This is why they continue to support the Democratic Party

87 Mary McLeod Bethune

88

89 1935- founds the National Council on Negro Women Meant to advance the quality of life for African-American women

90

91 Mary McLeod Bethune Served as an advisor to FDR Director of the Division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration – First African-American female agency head – Helped the government recognize the need to get more agencies to hire blacks

92 EVEN THOUGH THERE WAS NO ONE “GREAT” BLACK LEADER DURING THIS TIME, THE NEEDS OF BLACKS WERE NOT IGNORED…

93 NAACP

94 Walter White

95

96 1931- takes over the NAACP “White” skin, blond hair, blue eyes Could “pass” as white

97 Walter White Changes the focus of the NAACP Really focus more on legal issues under him

98 NAACP in the 1930s Operating on a reduced budget because of the Depression

99 Legal Defense Fund

100 Charles Houston

101 Dean of Howard Law School Head of NAACP’s legal defense fund

102 Legal Defense Fund Focus on the South 80% of blacks live there Less than 100 black lawyers

103 Education Biggest issue for the NAACP during the 1930s

104 Education Howard: found three areas where he thought segregation in schools could be challenged – Differences in salaries in teachers between white and black schools – Lack of access of African-Americans to graduate schools – Disproportionate funds for schools compared to what African-Americans paid in taxes

105 NAACP and the New Deal Challenged programs they felt to be discriminatory towards African-Americans

106 Thurgood Marshall

107 1936- joins the NAACP’s Legal Defense Fund becomes chief council for the Legal Defense Fund named to the US Supreme Court – First African-American to hold this position

108 Criticism of the NAACP during the 1930s Ordinary African-Americans wondered if court cases took too long to bring about change

109 W.E.B. Du Bois

110 1934- decides to leave the NAACP – Issues with White – Questions about the structure of the organization – Questions about the focus of the organization – Begins to advocate for voluntary segregation (goes against the ideals of the NAACP)

111 GOING INTO THE 1940S, CONDITIONS WERE NOT GOOD FOR BLACKS IN AMERICA…

112 Pearl Harbor

113

114 The West Virginia explodes, Pearl Harbor ( 1941)

115 Rare color photograph of destruction at Pearl Harbor

116 A Day Which Will Live in Infamy… December 7, 1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor

117 US Is Now Officially Involved in WW2 African-Americans have to decide whether or not they want to support the war effort Issue: they were not treated like citizens at home, so why should they fight for democracy abroad?

118 African-Americans in World War 2 The black press reflected many concerns that African-Americans felt Unlike the mainstream press which supported US involvement in the war Made them subject to harassment

119 W.E.B. Du Bois

120 Did not support the US getting involved in the war Especially did not like the decision to fight in the Pacific

121 James Thompson and the Double-V Campaign

122 James Thompson and the Double V Campaign

123 Double V Campaign Victory at home (i.e. an end to Jim Crow laws) Victory abroad

124 Double V Campaign

125 Thompson and the Double V Campaign Joins the Army His example, and campaign, lead to many more blacks joining the military

126 J. Edgar Hoover

127 Did not like the Double-V campaign With FDR’s support, he wanted to indict black newspaper editors who supported this idea

128 Frances Biddle

129 Attorney General of the U.S. Met with black newspaper editors and agreed not to charge them as long as they didn’t intensify their criticism of the war effort

130 Black Newspapers Were Still Thought To Be A Threat… Military libraries would not carry them Burned any copies they found so that black soldiers did not have access to them Were very fearful that black newspapers would encourage blacks not to support the war effort

131 African American Men during WW2

132 African-American Men during WW2

133 African-Americans during WW2 Over 700,000 serve Primarily in Army Initially, government wanted to limit blacks to 5.8% of the armed forces but blacks protested against this

134 African-Americans during ww2 Forced to endure segregation in the military

135 Blacks in the Military Generally assigned to menial jobs

136 Tuskegee Airmen

137

138

139 Blacks in the Military Even though most blacks were not on the front lines, their work behind the scenes was very important

140 Impact of African-Americans in WW2 Military is officially segregated until 1948 BUT WW2 lays the foundation for integration less than 4000 blacks in the military; 12 officers million blacks were serving HUGE increase

141 African-Americans on the Homefront Last hired and first fired

142 African-Americans on the Homefront Great Depression ended with the war

143 Hundreds of Thousands of New Jobs Opened… To Whites

144 Even White Women

145 African-Americans on the Homefront Over 50% of defense factories said they would not hire blacks Did not matter whether the blacks were skilled laborers or not

146 A. Philip Randolph

147

148

149 Wanted to have a March on Washington demanding equality for blacks in the federal work force Had tremendous support from the black community Over 100,000 were scheduled to go

150 FDR

151 Worried about how a March on Washington would make the US appear to the rest of the world

152 A. Philip Randolph and Walter White

153 2 Demands 1)Integration of the army 2)No segregation in hiring for the defense industries

154 Executive Order 8802 There will be no discrimination in the employment of workers because of race, creed, color, or national origin

155 Fair Employment Practices Committee

156 Meant to ensure companies with government contracts followed Executive Order 8802 Led to more African-American men getting jobs in the war industries Had a small budget, and few employees so effectiveness varied by region

157 Fair Employment Practices Committee Executive Order 9346 – Strengthens the Fair Employment Practices Committee – Required that all government contracts had a non- discrimination clause – Now included federal government establishments like shipyards, etc.

158 Impact of Randolph Showed that blacks could DEMAND their rights and the government was willing to listen Will bring this into the Civil Rights Movement

159 POST-WAR AMERICA

160 Post-War America Racism was as bad as before the war

161 Post-War America Blacks attitudes had changed Had achieved victory abroad so they now wanted to get victory at home

162 A. Philip Randolph

163 League for Nonviolent Civil Disobedience Against Military Segregation

164 Harry Truman

165

166 Executive Order 9981 Bans segregation in the armed forces

167 WORLD WAR 2 LEADS TO THE EMERGENCE OF THE MODERN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT…


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