Presentation on theme: "African Americans: Path to Civil Rights. Lesson Objective: Today we will analyze the INJUSTICES of African Americans in the United States up to World."— Presentation transcript:
African Americans: Path to Civil Rights
Lesson Objective: Today we will analyze the INJUSTICES of African Americans in the United States up to World War II.
From Slavery to Emancipation Emancipation = to set free America was built on the backs of millions of slaves Cotton picked by slaves fueled the textile (clothing) factories of the north Tobacco was also an important early product that made America a wealthy country Many Americans were opposed to slavery on moral or economic grounds, or both How did African American’s contribute to the success of southern America?
From Slavery to Emancipation: Black Participation in the Civil War The Civil War was not originally about freeing the slaves “If I could save the Union by keeping slavery, I would. If I could save the Union by freeing slaves, I would. My goal is to save the Union” Fighting for freedom became a primary goal Blacks contributed in many ways
Black Participation in the Civil War Over a hundred thousand blacks joined the Union Army (the North) Hundreds of thousands of Blacks fled Southern Plantations Many helped the North by transporting supplies, being cooks, providing heavy labor, and spying on the South Many southerners were genuinely surprised their slaves left them
African Americans Are Free!!!, sort of… Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation Frees slaves in the Southern States, which he does not have the power to do Does not free the slaves in the border states, even though he would have the power to do so Needs the Border States for support
New Rights for African Americans 13 th,14 th, and 15 th Amendments gave African Americans new rights African Americans became citizens, slavery was outlawed, the right to vote, the right to public accommodations (hotels and trains) Shortly after the war, Grant became President. He won by 300,000 votes, of which 700,000 African Americans voted for him Blacks eagerly set up their own schools, churches, and businesses Two Senators, 20 Congressmen, hundreds of State Legislators
Virtual Slavery to Escape Post Civil War Era Blacks were officially free, but faced many problems Land was given back to Southern traitors, not the slaves that helped the Union difficult to buy or lease land had to sign a labor contract for one year The homeless, jobless, and orphans were sent to plantations to be “apprentices”
Post Civil War Era Sharecropping and tenant farming, endless debt the dreaded company store Southern States did not have to guarantee rights for blacks Intense poverty and discrimination How did sharecropping and tenant farming keep AA’s in debt?
No money, no land rent is paid by working someone else’s land and paying with crops At harvest time, sharecroppers can not cover their debt sharecropper cannot leave the farm until debt is paid
Jim Crow was the name of a song and dance performer A white man who put on black face and then acted “black” It was a very popular show for decades Jim Crow laws were laws that discriminated against AA’s Segregation in housing, schooling, and public facilities (transportation, hospitals, trains, etc.) Also a system of respect and lack of respect Jim Crow Laws
Whites often called black men of all ages, “boy” Black men would have to tip their hats as whites walked by Sometimes, blacks would have to step off the side walk onto the street to let whites pass by “Yes sir, no sir” Click on image
Segregation – separating on the basis of race African Americans had separate schools, transportation, restaurants, and parks, many of which were poorly funded and inferior to those of whites. Belzoni, Mississippi Delta, Mississippi
Roadblocks to Integration Intense racism continued New rules went largely un-enforced by State and Federal Governments Emergence and acceptance of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
African Americans in the early 1900s: “I am tired of being poor. I am tired of being lynched. I am tired of the South. I am going to move North!
This movement of African Americans became known as the “Great Migration.” Many African Americans headed towards New York and started a cultural movement called the Harlem Renaissance.