Presentation on theme: "Social Impact of WWII: The African American Experience"— Presentation transcript:
1 Social Impact of WWII: The African American Experience IB History of the Americas
2 Mobilizing the Economy for War Wartime production officially ended the DepressionWar Production Board: Established to coordinate production of war materialsHalted production of nonessential materialsConservation of goods: Ex: Imposed national speed limit to conserve rubber
3 Mobilizing the Economy for War ctnd. Office of Price Administration: To curb wartime inflationSet price ceilingsEstablished rationing of critical goods (meat, butter)National War Labor Board: To keep workers in factoriesImposed ceilings on wage increasesRequired 30 days notice before strikeMany unhappy workers still went on strike
4 Building up troops 15 million men and 250,000 women enlisted To keep production going, certain groups of workers eliminated from draftStill, drain on agricultural workers led government to create bracero program with Mexico. (we will get to this later)
5 EFFECTS ON THE HOMEFRONT: IMPACT ON SOCIETY: Demographic Shifts UrbanizationMigration to West, esp. Californiarapid industrialization of some western states (California)Population ShiftsA Nation on the Move, ; American migration during the 1940s was the largest on record to that time. The farm population dropped dramatically as men, women, and children moved to war-production areas and to army and navy bases, particular on the West Coast. Well over 30 million Americans migrated during the war. Many returned to their rural homes after the war, but 12 million migrants stayed in their new locations. Notice the population increases on the West Coast, as well as in the Southwest and Florida. American Pageant 13eWartime Bases: Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;5
6 African-Americans During War Double Victory campaign: Victory against dictators abroad, and racism at homeSome victories: more job opportunities, increased migration to North and West (esp. CA)Still, much racism: African Americans paid less, discriminated in housing, in public facilities
7 The Double V Campaign V for Victory- V for equality at home African Americans started the Double V campaignThey remained patriotic, yet pushed for civil rights for blacks.It was very important that the campaign show loyalty towards the war effort, since the black press had been criticized for pushing their own agenda ahead of the national agenda.
8 CORE The Congress of Racial Equality CORE was founded in 1942 by James Farmer and othersPrecursor to Dr. King and movement in 1950sUsed non-violent means to force equalityUsed sit-ins to force changeThe group's inspiration the book War Without Violence which outlined Mahatma Gandhi's step-by-step procedures for organizing people and mounting a nonviolent campaign.
9 African-American Resistance African Americans begin organizing:1941: A. Philip Randolph, a black labor leader, threatened to march on Washington to protest prejudice against African-American workersIn response to threat, Roosevelt banned discrimination in government agencies.Established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to insure equal treatment for African-Americans and other minorities in war industries.Still, results limited. When GIs returned, blacks still first to lose jobs.All of this is an important precedent to Civil Rights movement.
13 Blacks were still forced to fight in all black units during WWII. The Tuskegee Airmen were black fighter pilots who destroyed 400 enemy aircraft by the end of the war.
14 Racial Discrimination abroad… Despite the numbers, they faced racial discrimination:Racially segregated forcesAfrican Americans were often classified as unfit for combat and were not allowed on the front linesMostly given support dutiesNo African Americans were given the Medal of Honor during either world war
15 African Americans on the Homefront The Struggle for Justice continued on the home front as well as in the militaryIn the South, segregation continuedCivil rights still a struggleUnemployment was high for all segments of the black communityBlack migration – over 2 million migrated to the northern industrial citiesForced to live in crowded urban areas called ghettosConcentrated neighborhoods of minorities
16 Two Americas?? Attitudes of Americans in 1942 60% of whites thought blacks satisfied with their conditionMost blacks disagreedDetroit riots – 34 people killed (1943)New York City riots (1943)FDR did not push Civil Rights as a priority“I doubt we can bring about perfection at this time.”