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China and Mao Zedong By: Jacqueline McMaster, Lily Chriszt, Grace Glancy, & Madison Bailey.

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Presentation on theme: "China and Mao Zedong By: Jacqueline McMaster, Lily Chriszt, Grace Glancy, & Madison Bailey."— Presentation transcript:

1 China and Mao Zedong By: Jacqueline McMaster, Lily Chriszt, Grace Glancy, & Madison Bailey.

2 Mao Zedong December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976 Known as the world's most prominent Chinese communist during the 20th century. In 1921 Mao became a founding member of the Chinese Communist Party Exemplified in the Great Leap Forward (1958) and the Cultural Revolution (1966).

3 Mao Zedong Communist Leader in Southern China Guerilla warfare Promoted literacy and advanced food production and gave land back to peasants B/c of above: won peasant’s loyalty By 1945, controlled much of northern China too. Soviet Union Supported him Determined to reshape China’s economy based on Marxist socialism

4 Mao Zedong Some say the Communist Chinese leader went further than either Hitler or Stalin in removing independent thought in China's population. His techniques of control consisted of brain washing everyone to do whatever he wanted. Eventually led to pure torture such as banning anything to do with relaxation and sleep deprivation, sometimes for as long as two weeks. Also used stuff such as whipping, hanging by the wrists and wrenching knees were also used.

5 The Great Leap Forward Expansion of the first ‘Five-Year Plan’ Created about 26,000 communes Communes: were large collective farms (15,00 acres) and about 25,000 people would work and live and farm Strictly controlled life on commune

6 The Great Leap Forward FAILED Inefficient ‘backyard’ industries stopped development 1961 crop failures caused famine Killed about 20 million people

7 Cultural Revolution Led by Red Guard Goal was to make everybody equal The new model citizen was a peasant who worked with his hands Many colleges and schools were shut down Educated people were forced to do hard labor to ‘purify’

8 Kuomintang · Established in 1912 by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren · When the party was suppressed in 1913 Sun Yat-sen and his military commander, Chiang Kai-Shek(Jiang Jieshi) escaped to Japan. · The Soviet Union eventually helped the Kuomintang gain back power in China · When Sun Yat-sen died in 1925 Chiang Kai-Shek(later going by Jiang Jieshi) became the leader.

9 Kuomintang · In 1928 the reformed Kuomintang captured Beijing and was able to establish a government in Nanjing. · When the Japanese army invaded in 1937, Chiang was forced to move his capital to Chungking. · In order to defeat the Japanese the Kuomintang's (nationalists) and the communists joined forces. · As soon as the Japanese surrendered the civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists un-paused.

10 Jiang Jieshi Born in 1887 Died 1975 Soldier and statesman Head of the Nationalist government in China from 1928 to 1949, and subsequently head of the Chinese Nationalist government in exile on Taiwan.

11 Jiang Jieshi In 1911 Chiang returned home and helped in the sporadic fighting that led to the overthrow of the Manchu's After Sun Yixian died in 1925, Jiang Jieshi headed the Kuomintang In April of 1927 the Nationalist forces marched into Shangai and killed many communist leaders and trade union members

12 Jiang Jieshi In 1928, Jiang became president of the Nationalist Republic of China. In 1933, Jiang and his army of 700,000 men surrounded the Communists’ party’s mountain stronghold, leading the communist party to flee. After fleeing, the Communist party began a 6,000 mile journey to safety known as the Long March. Jiang Jieshi, Zhang Xue-liang, and Feng Yu-xaing

13 The Chinese Civil War In a little more than four years after Japan’s surrender, the CCP and the People’s liberation Army conquered mainland China, and, on Oct. 1, 1949, the People’s Republic of China was established, with its capital at Beijing. The factors that brought this about were widely varying, but the basic fact was a communist military triumph growing out of a profound and popularly based revolution.

14 The Chinese Civil War This is looked at usually in three phases: Phase 1:from August 1945 to the end of 1946, the Nationalists and communists tried to take over Japanese-held territories, built up their forces, and fought many limited engagements while still conducting negotiations for a peaceful settlement

15 The Chinese Civil War Phase two: during 1947 and the first half of 1948, after initial Nationalist success, the strategic balance turned in favor of the communists; and the communists won a series of smashing victories Phase three: beginning in the latter part of 1948 that led to the establishment of the People’s Republic. The communist party won the civil war.

16 The suspension of the civil war- When Japan invaded china during world war two, the communists and the nationalists stopped fighting to defeat the Japanese together. After the Japanese were defeated, they resumed the war until 1949.

17 The Red Guard Students: mainly teenagers Had a devotion to Chairman Mao Led the cultural revolution million Guards were formed and roamed the country Set out to destroy the non-Mao way of life

18 The Red Guard Destroyed buildings Beat and killed Mao’s alleged enemies Took teenage rebellion to a whole new level Mao turned on them and most were exiled to the countryside

19 The Long March Began at 5pm on October 16 th, 1934 The Long March saved Mao Zedong and the communist party from the attacks by the Guomingdang. Lasted 368 days and was about 6,000 miles. The communist fled north from the nationalist forces. The Communists embarked on after the nationalists surrounded their mountain stronghold

20 Review Questions! 1. Of the nationalists, who became president of the Nationalist Republic of China in 1928? A.Mao Zedong B.Fa Mulan C.Jiang Jieshi D.Sun Yixian Answer: C. Jiang Jieshi

21 Review Questions! 2. What long journey did the communists embark on after the nationalists surrounded their mountain stronghold? A.Walk to the Sea B.The Long March C.Miraculous March D.Journey of Safety Answer: B. The Long March

22 Review Questions! 3. What did Mao Zedong launch in 1958 that planned to develop industry and agriculture but failed? A.Step towards Succession B.Economic Plan C.First Five Year Plan D.Great Leap Forward Answer: D. Great Leap Forward

23 Review Questions! 4. Who won the Chinese civil war? A.Nationalist B.Communist C.Lutherans D.Democrats Answer: B. Communist

24 Review Questions! 5. Who invaded China during the Chinese civil war and during WW2? A.Germany B.Japan C.Korea D.United States Answer: B. Japan

25 Review Questions! Q: Who were the Kuomintang's, who did they fight in the Chinese civil war and what were the negatives and positives to their relationship? A: The Kuomintang's were a strong group of nationalists founded by Sun Yet-sen and took over by Jieng Jieshi. In the Chinese civil war they fought the communists led by Mao Zedong. The positives of the relationship were that even though they hated each other and shared completely different views of how china should be led, they banded together to fight off Japan in which they succeeded. The negatives were that they went into a very violent civil war with each other and the Kuomintang's knocked out almost all of the communist leaders at one point. In the end the communists won the civil war.

26 Review Questions! Q: How did Mao Zedong plan to change china in to a communist country? A: By instituting communist based plans that would advance china such as the 5-year plan and the Great Leap Forward.

27 Review Questions! Q: What was the long march and how did it set the path for WW2? A: The Long March was the 6,000-mile journey that the communists took to escape once the nationalists began to surround their mountain stronghold. It set the path for WW2 by being fragile in the eyes of other countries so the Japanese stepped in but failed.


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