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VITAMIN ORGANIC COMPOUND: 1.COMPONENT OF NATURAL FOOD DISTINCT FROM CH, FAT,PROTEIN, AND WATER 2.PRESENT IN NORMAL FOODS IN MINUTE AMOUNT 3.ESSENTIAL FOR.

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Presentation on theme: "VITAMIN ORGANIC COMPOUND: 1.COMPONENT OF NATURAL FOOD DISTINCT FROM CH, FAT,PROTEIN, AND WATER 2.PRESENT IN NORMAL FOODS IN MINUTE AMOUNT 3.ESSENTIAL FOR."— Presentation transcript:

1 VITAMIN ORGANIC COMPOUND: 1.COMPONENT OF NATURAL FOOD DISTINCT FROM CH, FAT,PROTEIN, AND WATER 2.PRESENT IN NORMAL FOODS IN MINUTE AMOUNT 3.ESSENTIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NORMAL TISSUE AND FOR NORMAL HEALTH, GROWTH, MAINTENANCE 4.WHEN ABSENT CAUSE A SPECIFIC DEFICIENCY DISEASE 5.CANNOT BE SYNTHESIZED BY THE HOST THE VITAMINS HAVE NO CHEMICAL RESEMBLANCE TO EACH OTHER, BUT BECAUSE OF A SIMILAR GENERAL FUNCTION IN METABOLISM THEY ARE CONSIDERED TOGETHER ALPHABET  NOMENCLATURE BASED ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE

2 Vitamins Organic compounds needed for growth and good health They are crucial in helping the body use nutrients and often function as coenzymes Only vitamins D, K, and B are synthesized in the body; all others must be ingested Water-soluble vitamins (B-complex and C) are absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract – B 12 additionally requires gastric intrinsic factor to be absorbed

3 Vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) bind to ingested lipids and are absorbed with their digestion products Vitamins A, C, and E also act in an antioxidant cascade

4 Vitamins The word "vitamin" comes from vita, the Latin for "life". Everybody must eat a certain amount of vitamins to stay healthy. Vitamins are chemicals found in very small amounts in many different foods. If people live on a very limited range of foods they may not get their proper share of vitamins

5 VITAMIN VITAMIN A VITAMIN D VITAMIN E VITAMIN K THIAMINE RIBOFLAVIN PYRIDOXINE PANTOTHENIC ACID FOLIC ACID CHOLINE BIOTIN CYANOCOBALAMIN ASCORBIC ACID FAT SOLUBLE WATER SOLUBLE

6 VITAMINMETABOLIC ACTIVITYDEFICIENCY SYMPTOM A (retinol, retinal. Retinoic acid) 1.OXIDATION-REDUCTION ACTIVITY, VISUAL CYCLE 2.NECESSARY FOR NORMAL SYNTHESIS OF CHONDROITIN SULFATE  CATTLE AND PIG: SKIN CONDITION, XEROPHTHALMIA.  POULTRY: RETARDED GROWTH, HIGH MORTALITY D (Ergocalciferol, Cholecalciferol)  ABSORPTION OF Ca FROM INTESTINE  NECESSARY FOR CALCIFICATION OF BONE MATRIX  YOUNG ANIMAL: RICKETS  OLD ANIMAL: OSTEOMALACIA E (Alpha tocopherol)  INHIBITS AUTOXIDATION OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS  MOST ANIMAL: FAIL TO REPRODUCE  YOUNG CATTLE AND LAMB: MUSCLE DEGERATION  CHICK: CEREBRAL DEGENARATION K (Phylloquinine)  NECESSARY FOR THE HEPATIC SYNTHESIS OF PROCONVERTIN  CHICKS: DELAYED CLOTTING TIME OF BLOOD VITAMIN SUMMARY OF THE METABOLIC ACTIVITIES OF VITAMINS

7 VITAMINMETABOLIC ACTIVITYDEFICIENCY SYMPTOM B1 (Thiamine)  DECARBOXYLATION OF PYRUVIC ACID  TRANSKETOLASE REACTION OF HEXOSEMONOPHOSPH ATE SHUNT  EMACIATION, WEAKNESS, AND NERVOUS DISORDER (POLYNEURITIS OF CHICK) B2 (Riboflavin)  BIOSYNTHESIS OF FLAVIN NUCLEOTIDE (FAD, FMN)  OXIDATION- REDUCTION REACTION  PIGS: RETARDED GROWTH, SKIN CONDITION, EYE DISEASES  CHICK: CURLED TOE PARALYSIS NICOTINAMIDE  COMPONENT OF PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES (DPN, TPN)  OXIDATION- REDUCTION REACTION  PIGS: POOR GROWTH, ENTERITIS, DERMATITIS  DOGS: BLACKTONGUE

8 VITAMINMETABOLIC ACTIVITYDEFICIENCY SYMPTOM B6 (Pyridoxine)  AMINO ACID METABOLISM  ACTIVE TRANSPORT ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE  PIGS: ANEMIA AND CONVULSION  CHICK: SLOW GROWTH, CONVULSIONS PANTOTHENIC ACID  COMPONENT OF ACETYLCOENZYME A  ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN  PIGS: SLOW GROWTH, SKIN CONDITION, GOOSE STEP  CHICKS: SLOW GROWTH, DERMATITIS FOLIC ACID  CO-FACTOR IN ACTIVE METHYL or ONE CARBON METABOLISM  RARE IN FARM ANIMAL BUT WILL CAUSE ANEMIA AND POOR GROWTH CHOLINE  NECESSARY FOR SYNTHESIS OF LECITHIN  LIPID METABOLISM  SLOW GROWTH, FATTY LIVER

9 VITAMINMETABOLIC ACTIVITY DEFICIENCY SYMPTOM BIOTIN  NECESSARY FOR THE INCORPORATION OF CO2 INTO ORGANIC COMPOUND  DERMATITIS AND WEIGHT LOSS B12 (Cyanocobalamin)  GLUTAMIC ACID METABOLISM  SYNTHESIS OF NUCLEIC ACID  ALL ANIMAL: SLOW GROWTH, WASTING SICKNESS IN CATTLE C (Ascorbic acid)  OXIDATION- REDUCTION REACTION  FARM ANIMALS DO NOT REQUIRE THIS VITAMIN

10 VITAMIN A (RETINOL, RETINAL RETINOIC ACID) 1913 McCOLLUM and DAVIS  RAT FAILED TO GROW 1931 KARRER  ISOLATED FROM FISH OIL 1940 SYNTHETIC BECOME COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE VITAMIN A ESTER (STORAGE) RETINOL (TRANSPOT) RETINALRETINOIC ACID INACTIVE PRODUCT VISUAL PIGMENT LIGHT DARK SCOTOPSIN

11 VITAMIN A (RETINOL, RETINAL RETINOIC ACID) PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE AND DEFICIENCY SYMPTOM 1.VITAMIN A AND VISION 11-CIS-RETINOL (IN BLOOD) TRANS RETINOL 11-CIS-RETINAL TRANS RETINAL + SCOTOPSIN RHODOPSIN IN DARK + SCOTOPSININ LIGHT ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE VIT A ISOMERASE

12 VITAMIN A (RETINOL, RETINAL RETINOIC ACID) PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE AND DEFICIENCY SYMPTOM 2.VITAMIN A IN REPRODUCTION IN FEMALE : RETINOL OR RETINAL IS REQUIRED FOR MAINTENANCE OF THE PLACENTA IN THE SECOND HALF OF GESTATION (22d). DEFICIENCY  NECROSIS OF THE PLACENTAL DISK, RESORPTION OF THE FOETUS IN MALE : FAILURE OF SPERMATOGENESIS PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE AND DEFICIENCY SYMPTOM 3.SYNTHESIS OF MPS ACTIVATION OF SULFAT MOLECULE WHICH IS ELEMENT OF MPS RESPIRATORY  COLD AND SINUS TROUBLE ALIMENTARY TRACT  DIARRHOEA GENITO-URINARY TRACT  BLADDER STONE REPRODUCTION  ABNORMAL REPRODUCTION

13 VITAMIN A (RETINOL, RETINAL RETINOIC ACID) PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE AND DEFICIENCY SYMPTOM 4.DEVELOPMENT OF BONE ACTIVITY OF OSTEOCLAST AND OSTEOBLAST BLINDNESS IN CALVES (OPTIC NERVE) DEAFNESS IN DOGS (AUDITORY NERVE)

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17 VITAMIN D (ERGOCALCIFEROL AND CHOLECALCIFEROL 1650 GLISSON (ENGLAND) 1918 MELLANBY: RICKET IN DOG BY GIVING MILK ONLY 1919 HULDSCHINSKY: RACHITIC CHILDREN BY ULTRAVIOLET RAY 1931 ANGUS: ERGOSTEROL  D2; 7-DEHYDROCHOLESTEROL  D3 METABOLIC FUNCTION: 1.ABSORPTION OF Ca AND P FROM INTESTINAL TRACT 2.REABSORPTION OF PHOSPHATE FROM KIDNEY TUBULAR 3.INCREASE ACTIVITY OF ENZYME PHYTASE IN RAT INTESTINE 4.STIMULATE INCORPORATE OF P INTO PHOSPOLIPID OF INTESTINAL MUCOSA

18 VITAMIN D (ERGOCALCIFEROL AND CHOLECALCIFEROL DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: RICKET  ENLARGED JUNCTION BETWEEN BONE AND CARTILAGES  CURVATURE OF THE BONE IN SEVERE CASES OSTEOMALACIA  REABSORPTION POULTRY  BONES AND BEAK BECOME SOFT AND RUBBERY  GROWTH RETARDED, LEG BECOME BOWED POTENCY: CATLE, SHEEP, PIG D2 =D3 POULTRY D2 1/35 D3

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20 VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROL, ANTI STERILITAS, ANTI OKSIDANT) 1920 MATTIL and CONKLIN: MILK + YEAST + Fe  UNABLE BEAR YOUNG 1922 BISHOP and EVANS: FACTOR X FOR NORMAL REPRODUCTION 1936 EVANS: ISOLATED VITAMIN E FROM WHEAT GERM OIL TOCOPHEROL  TOKOS + PHERO THERE ARE ABOUT 8 NATURALLY OCCURING TOCOPHEROL AND TOCOTRIENOL, ALL HAVE THE SAME PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES. TOCOPHEROLS ARE YELLOW, OILY LIQUID, REMARKABLY STABLE TO HEAT AND ACIDS BUT NO ALKALINE.

21 VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROL, ANTI STERILITAS, ANTI OKSIDANT) TOCOPHEROLS ARE LARGELY FOUND IN WHEAT GERM OIL AND OTHER GERM OIL PORTION. IN ANIMAL BODY FOUND IN BODY FAT, IN HEART MUSCLE, α-TOCOPHEROL FOUND IN MITOCHONDRIA BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION: 1) PROTECTING OTHER NUTRIENT LIKE VIT A AS WELL AS SATURATED FATTY ACIDS FROM DESTRUCTIVE OXIDATION, 2) PARTICIPATE IN NORMAL TISSUE RESPIRATION: a) CYTOCHROME REDUCTASE SYSTEM, b) PROTECT LIPID STRUCTURE OF MITOCHONDRIA FROM OXIDATION DESTRUCTION 3) AIDS THE NORMAL PHOSPORYLATION OF CREATINE PHOSPHATE AND ATP 4) INVOLVE IN THE SYNTHESIS OF ASCORBIC ACID, AND IN METABOLISM OF NUCLEIC ACID AND SAA

22 CONDITIONANIMALTISSUE AFFECTED PREVENTED BY VITAMIN E SELENIUM REPRODUCTI VE FAILURE FEMALE: RAT, HEN, TURKEY VASCULAR SYSTEM OF EMBRYO YESNO EMBRYONIC DEGENERATI ON EWEN OYES STERILITYMALE : RAT, GUINEA PIG, HAMSTER, DOG, COCK MALE GONADS YESNO REPRODUCTIVE VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROL, ANTI STERILITAS, ANTI OKSIDANT)

23 VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROL, ANTI STERILITAS, ANTI OKSIDANT) CONDITIONANIMAL TISSUE AFFECTED PREVENTED BY VITAMIN ESELENIUM LIVER NECROSIS RAT, PIGLIVERYES ERYTHROCYTE DESTRUCTION RAT, CHICK RBC HAEMOLYSIS YESNO BLOOD PROTEIN LOSS CHICK, TURKEY SERUM ALBUMIN YES ENCEPHALO- MALACIA CHICKCEREBELLUMYESNO EXUDATHIVE DIATHESIS CHICK TURKEY CAPILLARY WALL YES KIDNEY DEGERATION RAT, MONKEY, MINK TUBULAR EPHITELIUM YES STEATITISMINK, PIG, CHICK DEPOT FATYES LIVER, BLOOD, CAPILLARIES, BRAIN

24 CONDITIONANIMAL TISSUE AFFECTED PREVENTED BY VITAMIN ESELENIUM NUTRITION AL MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY RABBIT, GUINEA PIG, DUCK, CHICK, TURKEY SKELETAL MUSCLE YESNO STIFF LAMBLAMB, KID SKELETAL MUSCLE YES WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE CALF, SHEEP, MOUSE, MINK SKELETAL AND HEART MUSCLE YES MYOPATHY OF GIZZARD TURKEYGIZZARD, HEART, SKELETAL MUSCLE YES VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROL, ANTI STERILITAS, ANTI OKSIDANT) NUTRITIONAL MYOPATHIES

25 VITAMIN E SOURCES FEED STUFFSα-TOCOPHEROL (mg/100g) WHEAT145 SUNFLOWER SEED, WHOLE13 CLOVER, DEHYDRATED10 ALFALFA MEAL, DEHYDRATED7-25 RICE, BROWN1-2 SWEET POTATOES4-10 BONE MEAL0.05 FISH MEAL VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROL, ANTI STERILITAS, ANTI OKSIDANT)

26 VITAMIN K (PHYLLOQUINONE, PRENYLMENAQUINONE, MENADIONE 1935 DAM: GREEN LEAVES  HAEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME 1939 DAM: PURIFIED COMPOUND WAS ISOLATED FROM ALFALFA DANISH WORD FACTORS AFFECTING REQUIREMENT: 1) THE AVAILABILITY, 2) ITS STABILITY IN FEED, 3) INTESTINAL SYNTHESIS, 4) ABSORBABILITY, 5) ITS DESTRUCTION IN GIT, 6) INTERFERENCE WITH METABOLIC ACTIVITY EG DICOUMAROL CHEMICAL NATURE: PHYLLOQUINONE: IN ALL GREEN LEAFY MATERIAL PRENYLMENAQUINONE: INTESTINAL MICROBIAL SYNTHESIS MENADIONE: SYNTHESIS

27 VITAMIN K (PHYLLOQUINONE, PRENYLMENAQUINONE, MENADIONE 1.PLATELET FACTOR + PLASMA PROTEIN  PLASMA THROMOPLASTIN 2.PLASMA THROMBOPLASTIN + PROTHROMBIN + CONVERTIN  THROMBIN 3.FIBRINOGEN + THROMBINE  FIBRIN + PEPTIDE DEFICIENCY SYMPTOM: AVIAN SPECIES: HAEMORRHAGES RUMINANT: SWEET CLOVER POISONING

28 VITAMIN K (PHYLLOQUINONE, PRENYLMENAQUINONE, MENADIONE VITAMIN K SOURCES FEED STUFFS (mg/100g) CABBAGE250 CAUILIFLOWER275 SPINACH334 GRASS MEAL20 SOYBEANS190 WHEAT BRAN80

29 VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID 1928 SZENT GYORGYI: ORANGE JUICE, CABBAGE JUICE, ADRENAL CORTEX HEXURONIC ACID MAN, MONKEY, FRUIT BAT, GUINEA PIG: DIETARY SOURCE

30 VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTION: 1)COLLAGEN FORMATION, 2) CONVERTION FOLIC ACID INTO TETRA- HYDROFOLIC ACID (ACTIVE), 3) INVOLVED IN HYDROXYLATION OF PROLINE, LYSINE, AND ANILINE FOR NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ANIMAL, 4) AIDS IRON TO STAY IN REDUCED STATE DEFICIENCY SYMPTOM: SCURVY, WEAKNESS, SWOLLEN TENDOR JOINT, DELAYED HEALING OF WOUND. HAEMORRHAGIC GUMS

31 EIJKMANN – BATAVIA – POLYNEURITIS 1926 JANSEN AND DONATH: PURE FORM 1936 WILLIAMS: IDENTIFICATION OF THE STRUCTURE AND SYNTHESIS CHEMISTRY OF THIAMINE: PYRIMIDINE AND THIAZOLE RING HYDROXYL GROUP EASILY FORM ESTER WITH PHOSPHORUS OF ATP  TPP VITAMIN B1 (THIAMINE, ANEURINE)

32 DEFICIENCY DISEASES: NUMBNESS OF THE LEGS—PAIN IN THE CALF MUSCLE— SEVERE EXHAUSTION—EMACIATITON—PARALYSIS DIFFICULTY IN BREATHING, ENLARGEMENT OF THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE HEART—DECREASE HEART BEAT PERIPHERAL NEURITIS—CONTRACTION OF THE FEET AND SEVERE WEAKNESS OF THE WRISTS THE BRAIN MAY BE AFFECTED—CEREBRAL BERIBERI POLYNEURITIS (UNTHRIFITINESS—PARALYSIS—CONVULSION) BIRDS:CHARACTERISTIC PARALYSIS OF THE NECK MUSCLE— STAR-GAZING ATTITUDE PIRUVATE – LACK OF COCARBOXYLASE – LACTIC ACID VITAMIN B1 (THIAMINE, ANEURINE)

33 BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTION: THIAMINE, IN THE FORM OF THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE (THIAMINE PYROPHOSPHATE—TPP) IS THE COENZYME FOR DECARBOXYLATION OF KETO ACID SOURCES: YEAST, GRAINS, EGG YOLK, LIVER, KIDNEY VITAMIN B1 (THIAMINE, ANEURINE)

34 VITAMIN B2 (RIBOFLAVIN) IN THE EARLY DAYS, IT WAS BELIEVED THAT THE ANTIBERIBERI FACTOR REPRESENTED A SINGLE VITAMIN AFTER THIAMINE WAS ISOLATED, IT BECAME CLEAR THAT AT LEAST TWO FACTORS WERE INVOLVED, A HEAT LABILE (TRUE ANTIBERIBERI VITAMIN) AND HEAT STABLE (RAT GROWTH). THE LATER FOR SOMETIME WAS THOUGHT TO BE ONLY ONE SUBSTANCE—VITAMIN B2 (GREAT BRITAIN)—VITAMIN G (US)—LATER IDENTIFIED AS RIBOFLAVIN, PYRIDOXIN, NICOTINIC ACID AND PANTOTHENIC ACID) EGG WHITE  OVOFLAVIN MILK  LACTOFLAVIN LIVER  HEPATOFLAVIN RIBOFLAVIN— DIMETHYL-ISOALLOXAZINE AND RIBOSE

35 VITAMIN B2 (RIBOFLAVIN) RIBOFLAVIN: PROSTHETIC PART OF SOME ENZYME (CYTOCHROME REDUCTASE, DIAPHORASE, XANTHINE OXIDASE, L/D AA OXIDASE, HISTAMINASE etc—OXIDATION REDUCTION IN CELL RESPIRATION (ESSENTIAL ENZYME FOR GROWTH AND TISSUE REPAIR DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: CHEILOSIS, SOMATITIS, GLOSITIS, DERMATITIS, CURLED TOE PARALYSIS SOURCES: WIDELY DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT THE PLANT AND ANIMAL KINGDOM. MILK, LIVER, KIDNEY, HEART ARE EXCELLENT SOURCES ANAEROBIC FERMENTING BACTERIA  VERY RICH SOURCES

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37 NIACIN AND NIACINAMIDE FORMERLY: NICOTINIC ACID and NICOTINIC ACID AMID 1914 FUNK: ISOLATED FROM RICE POLISHING 1935 WARBURG and CHRISTIAN: COMPONENT OF NADP 1938 ELVEHJEM et al.:NIACINAMIDE ISOLATED FROM LIVER WAS ABLE TO CURE BLACK TONGUE IN DOGS NIACIN: PELAGRA-PREVENTIVE FACTOR CHEMICAL NATURE:

38 NIACIN AND NIACINAMIDE BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTION: COMPONENT OF 2 COENZYMES: 1)DPN ( or COENZYME I, NAD) 2)TPN (or COENZYME II = NADP) PRIMARY ACTION OF THESE TWO COENZYMES IS TO REMOVE HYDROGEN FROM SUBSTRATE AS DEHYDROGENASE ENZYMES AND TRANSFER HYDROGEN TO ANOTHER SUBSTRATE DEFICIENCY SYMPTOM: BLACK TONGUE (FOWLS) PELLAGRA ( SLOW GROWTH, POOR HAIR & SKIN CONDITION, VOMITING, DIARRHOEA, TICKENING OF LARGE INTESTINE, HIGH WHITE CELL COUNT IN BLOOD

39 NIACIN AND NIACINAMIDE SOURCES: GOOD SOURCE: YEAST, LEAN MEAT, LIVER, POULTRY MEDIUM SOURCE: MILK, TOMATOE, GREEN LEAVE TRYPTOPHAN  NIACIN (60 mg  1mg)

40 PYRIDOXINE (VIT B6, ADERMIN, VIT H) 1934 GYORGY: PART OF VIT B COMPLEX RESPONSIBLE FOR DERMATITIS IN RAT  SCALINESS OF PAW AND MOUTH 1938 KERESTEZY: ISOLATION AND SYNTHESIS 1945: PYRIDOXAL AND PYRIDOXAMINE METABOLIC FUNCTION: COENZYMES FOR DECARBOXYLATION, DEAMINATION OF SERINE AND THREONINE, TRANSAMINATION, TRANSULFURATION, DESULFURATION OF CYSTEINE DEFICIENCY SYMPTOM: CHICK: CONVULSION HEN: REDUCE EGG PROD AND HATCHABILITY PIG: ANOREXIA, ROUGHNESS OF HAIR, GOOSE STEP, CONVULSION SOURCES: YEAST, MAIZE, WHEAT, MILK, EGG, GREEN LEAF

41 PYRIDOXINE (VIT B6, ADERMIN, VIT H)

42 PANTOTHENIC ACID PURIFIED FROM LIVER AND YEAST ALONG WITH PYRIDOXINE ADSORPTION CHROMATOGRAPHY  PYRIDOXINE FILTRATE  PANTOTHENIC ACID 1938 WILLIAMS: ISOLATED 1940 MERK & Co: SYNTHESIZED CHEMICAL NATURE: CONDENSATION PRODUCT OF ALANINE AND PANTOIC ACID (OH AND CH3 SUBSTITUTED BUTYRIC ACID)

43 PANTOTHENIC ACID BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTION: PROSTETIC GROUP OF Co A (REVERSIBLE ACETYLATION REACTION ON CH, FAT, and AA METABOLISM  FUNDAMENTAL IMPORTANCE IN THE METABOLISM OF ALL CELLS DEFICIENCY SYMPTOM: AFFECT MAINLY ON 3 TISSUES: 1) NERVE (LESION AND DEMYELINATION, 2) ADRENAL GLAND (CoA IS PRECURSOR OF CHOLESTEROL  STEROID HORMON, 3) SKIN  DERMATITIS IN CHICK: RETARDED GROWTH, DERMATITIS, FATTY LIVER CONDITION, SUBCUTANEOUS HAEMORRHAGE, “GOOSE STEP WALK” SOURCES: GOOD:EGG YOLK, KIDNEY, LIVER, YEAST FAIR: SKIMMED MILK, SWEET POTATOE, MOLASSES

44 FOLIC ACID (FOLACIN) 1931 WILLS: MACROCYTIC ANEMIA OF PREGNANT WOMAN IN BOMBAY NAMES PREVIOUSLY APPLIED: VIT M (haematopoetic factor for monkey), VIT B6 (chick growth factor), FACTOR R (bacterial growth factor), and VIT B10, VIT B11 THE NAME FOLIC ACID WAS PROPOSED BY MITCHELL, 1941 FOR A COMPOUND ISOLATED FROM SPINACH NECESSARY FOR GROWTH OF Streptococcus faecalis R

45 FOLIC ACID (FOLACIN) BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTION: CARRIER FOR SINGLE CARBON GROUP EITHER FORMYL (-CHO), FORMATE (H.COOH), OR HYDROXYMETHYL (-CH2OH)

46 FOLIC ACID (FOLACIN) DEFICIENCY SYMPTOM: PIG: MACROCYTIC ANEMIA, LIPOPENIA CHICK: POOR GROWTH, POOR FEATHERING, DEPIGMENTATION, ANEMIC, PEROSIS

47 VITAMIN B12 (CYANOCOBALAMIN) 1926 MINOT and MURPHY: EFFICACY OF LIVER IN THE TRATMENT OF PERNICIOUS ANEMIA 1948 RICKES (US) and PARKER (ENGLAND): ISOLATED VIT B12  ANIMAL PROTEIN FACTOR CHEMICAL NATURE: CYANIDE GROUP COULD BE REPLACED BY A VARIETY OF ANION eg HYDROXYL (HYDROXY COBALAMIN/B12a), NITRITE (NITROCOBA- LAMIN/B12c) METABOLIC FUNCTION: METABOLISM OF ONE CARBON GROUP CONVERSION OF RIBOSE TO DEOXYRIBOSE ERYTHROCYTE PRODUCTION

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49 BIOTIN RAT FED RAW EGG WHITE DEVELOPED ECZEMA-LIKE DERMATITIS 1942 DUVIGNEAUD PUBLISHED ITS STRUCTURE 1943 HARRIS SYNTHESIS d-BIOTIN BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTION: COENZYME FOR CARBOXYLASES, WHICH CATALYZE CO2 FIXATION Or CARBOXYLATION, eg ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE WHICH CATALYZE THE REACTION OF CARBOXYLATION IN THE FIRST STEP OF NON-MITOCONDRIAL PATHWAY FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS DEFICIENCY: SCALY DERMATITIS, ANOREXIA SOURCE: ROYAL JELLY, LIVER, YEAST, MOLASSES, PEANUT

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