Presentation on theme: "Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Aulanni’am Biochemistry Laboratory Chemistry Departement Brawijaya University Vitamin and mineral."— Presentation transcript:
Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Aulanni’am Biochemistry Laboratory Chemistry Departement Brawijaya University Vitamin and mineral
Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Recommened Daily Intake Recommended daily intake (RDI) is the amount that satisfies the majority of healthy individuals within the population. RDI can be used as a referent when; developing menus, for food counseling, evaluating questionnaire for food consumption, and occasionally to estimate food consumption on an individual basis.
Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Vitamin Definition: Essential organic substance from the food that is important in small amount for the metabolism and function of the body. Exists in most food types Most of the vitamins play an important role in the body Decreased health status can be noticed with limited or excessive intake – deficiency vs. toxicity
Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Vitamin and mineral absorption Depends on Our nutritional status Other food items that is consumed at the same time Type of cocking method used Chemical state of nutrient The speed of digestion The quality of absorption How the vitamin and mineral is absorbed NOTE that all of the issues mentioned above are taken into consideration when evaluating the RDI
Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Vitamin B They all interact with the energy metabolism in one way or another The water soluble vitamin absorbs easily from the intestine as well as they are easily discreted from the kidney. Heat therapy, light and storage or radiation can decrease considerably the amount of water soluble vitamins in food
Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Vitamin B Thiamine (B 1 ) is a co-enzyme in energy metabolism, an important part of the nerve cells Deficiency: Beri-beri Food: found in various food items such as pork, green leafy vegetables, whole corn and beans. Riboflavin (B 2 ) is a co-enzyme in the respiratory chain Deficiency: skin rash Food: Milk and milk products, liver, green leafy vegetables, corn and meat
Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Vitamin B Niasin (B 3 ) is a co -enzyme in various chemical reactions The body can form niacin from the amino acid Tryptophan Deficiency: Pellagra Food: Niacin can be found in various food items. Protein rich food is favorable due to its content of Tryptophan. Biotin is a co -enzyme in chemical reactions, it plays role in a build up and brake down of various substance in the body. Deficiency: is rare, the need is very little. Symptoms are known as hair loss, skin swelling, scale formation etc. Food: is found in various food items
Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Vitamin B Pantothenic acid is a part of co-enzyme A (energy metabolism) as well as it plays and important role in development of many substances. Deficiency: is rare Food: Is found in various food items such as meat, fish, whole corn and beans Vitamin B 6 is a co enzyme in energy metabolism such as during formation of a.a. and f.a., trp. becomes niacin or serotonin, and formation of RBC Deficiency: lack of energy, irritation, insomnia, anemia etc. Toxicity: Can cause irreversible nerve damage Food: Meat, fish, potatoes, rise, bananas etc
Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Folate: is a co -enzyme in chemical reactions, important for formation of DNA, activation of vitamin B 12 etc. Note! Important for the development of the fetus during the first semester Deficiency: Slower formation and proliferation of the cell Food: Beans and vegetables, mainly green leafy vegetables Vitamin B 12 – Important for the activation of folate in the body and for the maintenance of the myelin sheets Is absorbed with help of “intrinsic factor” Deficiency: anemia due to folate deficiency, nerve damage Food: Almost only found in meat, fish, milk and milk based products as well as eggs.
Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Interplay of various food Vitamin B in Food Meat products: B1, niacin, B6 and B12 Milk products: B2 and B12 Fruit and vegetables: Folic acid Corn products: B1, B2 and niacin
Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Vitamin C Antioxidant (oxidation-reduction reactions) Plays a role in the formation of collagen and is important for strong tissues Plays a role in the respiratory chain Stimulates absorption on “non-heme” iron in the intestine during the same meal (Fe3+ becomes Fe2+) Deficiency: bleeding in the palatal, bruises and some other symptoms of scurvy. Food: fruits and vegetables, mostly citrus fruits.
Aulani " Biokimia" Presentation 10 Antioxidants Antioxidants are substances that protect from other substances such as free radicals. Free radicals can stimulate destructive chain reaction for vulnerable substances, that loses their function an become free radicals themselves. It is thought that destructions in cells due to free radicals can speed up the ageing as well as play a role in the development of cancer.