Presentation on theme: "Calcium Requirements Beef Cattle - 1996 Maintenance: 15.4 mg Ca/kg body wt Gain: 7.1 g Ca/100 g protein gain Lactation: 1.23 g Ca/kg milk Pregnancy: 13.7."— Presentation transcript:
Calcium Requirements Beef Cattle Maintenance: 15.4 mg Ca/kg body wt Gain: 7.1 g Ca/100 g protein gain Lactation: 1.23 g Ca/kg milk Pregnancy: 13.7 g Ca/kg fetal wt Distributed over last 3 months Correct for percentage of dietary Ca absorbed True absorption = 50% Requirement = Sum of fractions/0.5
Calcium Requirements Dairy Cattle Requirements as absorbed Ca, g/d Maintenance Nonlactating: g/kg body wt Lactating:0.031g/kg body wt Growth (9.83*(mature wt 0.22 )*(body wt ))*wt gain
Calcium Requirements Dairy Cattle Pregnancy See publication Lactation g/kg milk: 1.22 Holstein, 1.45 Jersey, 1.37 other Absorption of Ca Forages - 30% Concentrates - 60% Inorganic Ca - 75%
Calcium Absorbed from duodenum and jejunum. Active and passive absorption. Vitamin D required for active absorption. Efficiency of Ca absorption declines with age and increases during lactation. Some forms of Ca not readily absorbed Oxylates - found in legumes. Fat can reduce Ca absorption.
Calcium Ca deficiency Rickets (abnormal bone development) in young Osteomalacia (demineralized bone) in adult Blood Ca not adequate indicator
Sources of Calcium Feeds: Forages (leaves) tend to be high Grains tend to be low Supplemental: % Ca Ca carbonate 39.4 Ground limestone - Ca carbonate 34.0 Bone meal 30.7 Dicalcium phosphate 22.0 Ca sulfate 23.3
Phosphorus Requirements Beef cattle Maintenance: 16.0 mg P/kg body wt Gain: 3.9 g P/100 g protein gain Lactation:.95g P/kg milk Pregnancy: 7.6 g P/kg fetal wt Distributed over last 3 months Correct for percentage of dietary P absorbed True absorption = 68% Requirement = Sum of fractions/0.68
Phosphorus Requirements Dairy Cattle Pregnancy: See publication Lactation: 0.90 g of P/kg milk Absorption of P Forages - 64% Concentrates - 70% Inorganic Ca - 70%
Phosphorus Absorption occurs from small intestine. Absorption is an active process. Active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxy) stimulates. Influenced by source, Ca, intestinal pH, Fe, Al, Mn, K, Mg, fat.
Sources of Phosphorus Feeds: Forages tend to be low - dependent on soil P. Grains tend to be moderate to high. Phytate P is utilized by ruminants. Supplemental:% P Dicalcium phosphate19.3 Bone meal12.9 Ammonium P (Mono)24.7
Calcium and Phosphorus Ruminants will tolerate Ca:P ratios of 1:1 to 7:1. At ratios above and below this range, there is poor growth and decreased nutrient utilization. Feeding too much P may cause bone resorption, elevated plasma P and urinary calculi.
Magnesium Requirement Beef cattle Growing and finishing:0.10 % of diet Gestating cows:0.12 % of diet Lactating cows:0.20 % of diet Growth0.45 mg/kg gain Lactation0.12 mg/kg milk Pregnancy0.12, 0.21 and 0.33 mg/d for early, mid and late pregnancy
Magnesium Requirement Dairy Cattle Requirements as absorbed Mg, g/d Maintenance Lactating & nonlactating: 3 mg/kg body wt Growth 0.45 g/kg body wt Pregnancy 0.33 g/day
Magnesium Deficiencies: Young calves kept on milk diet: Loss of appetite, poor performance, increased excitability, tetany Young: anorexia, convulsions, profuse salivation, excitable Lactating cows grazing lush pasture: Tetany (grass tetany), poor absorption of Mg
Magnesium Mg is absorbed from the rumen. Absorption is high in young animals fed milk and declines with age. Mg in grains more available than Mg in forages. Excess Mg is excreted in urine. Cattle and sheep will tolerate 0.4 %to 0.5% Mg.
Magnesium Feeds: Plants are quite variable depending on species, soil concentrations, stage of growth, environmental temperature. Legumes higher than grasses. Grains usually contain 0.11 to 0.17 %. Plant proteins sources 0.20 to 0.35 %. Supplemental:% MgO56.2 MgSO MgCO Mg in dolmitic limestone is poorly available.
Potassium Requirement Beef Growing0.6 % of diet Beef cows0.5 to 0.7 % of diet LactationIncrease 0.1 % Deficiency Reduced feed intake, poor growth, rough hair coat, chewing on wood, reduced milk production K absorbed from rumen and omasum as well as intestine.
Potassium Requirement Dairy Growing and nonlactating g/kg body wt g/kg DM intake Lactating g/kg body wt g/kg DM intake Growth 1.6 g/kg gain
Potassium Requirement Dairy Pregnancy See publication Lactation 1.5 g/kg milk Dietary K 90% available
Potassium Forages are excellent sources of K, >1%. Decreases with maturity. Grains are often poorer sources of K, 0.4%. Supplemental Potassium chloride47.3 % Potassium bicarbonate39.0 % Potassium sulfate44.9 % Stress Heat - Transportation Performance improved by levels of 1.0% to 1.2% of diet DM.
Sodium Beef Requirement Nonlactating0.06% % of diet DM Lactating0.10% of diet DM
Sodium Dairy Maintenance Growing and nonlactating 1.5 g/100 kg body wt Lactating 3.8 g/100kg body wt Growth1.40 g/kg of daily gain PregnancySee publication Lactation0.63 g/kg milk Dietary Na 100% available
Sodium Deficiency Chewing wood, licking dirt, reduced feed intake, reduced gain. Toxicity Ruminants tolerate high concentrations of salt in feeds - up to 9 to 10% of feed DM to 2.0% salt in water will reduce water and feed intake, weight loss and physical collapse.
Sodium Feeds of plant origin usually have inadequate sodium. Feeds of animal origin have higher concentrations of sodium. % Na%Cl NaCl NaCHO Feed 0.2% to 0.3% of total diet as NaCl. If NaCl is fed, Cl requirements are met.
Chlorine Dairy Maintenance 2.25 g/100 kg body wt Growth1.0 g/kg of daily gain PregnancySee publication Lactation1.15 g/kg milk Dietary Cl 90% available
Cation - Anion Balance of diet If negative there tends to be metabolic acidosis Decreased feed intake and performance - All animals Strategy used in dairy cows prior to calving to prevent milk fever Feed: Ammonium chloride, Calcium chloride, Magnesium chloride, hydrochloric acid
Cation - Anion Balance of diet If positive there tends to be metabolic alkalosis Benefits to having positive CAB for growing animals and lactating cows Do not know what ratio should be for beef cattle in feedlot to +300 Meq/kg feed DM for lactating cows and young calves
Grass Tetany Result of low blood Mg Lactating cows grazing lush spring forage and 1 to 3 weeks into lactation Forage low in Mg & Na, high in K & N Removal of 0.15 g Mg for each liter of milk Poor absorption of Mg Loss of coordination, coma, death Treatment: Intravenous Ca and Mg Prevent: Supplement Mg
Trace Minerals Sulfur Requirement: 0.15 to 0.2% of diet is adequate. N:S ratio of 10:1. Required for synthesis of sulfur- containing amino acids by rumen organisms. Poor growth, excessive salvation, reduced wool growth, reduced rumen function.
Trace Minerals Sulfur Toxicity: > 0.5% of diet Reduced feed intake, restlessness, diarrhea. Water may contain high concentrations of sulfates. Up to 5,000 ppm. Supplemental sources: Sulfates, elemental S, sulfur amino acids.
Trace Minerals Cobalt Requirement: 0.08 to 0.2 mg/kg diet DM is adequate. Dairy-2001 indicates 0.11mg/kg Poor growth lack of appetite, weakness, decreased wool growth, decreased use of propionate (Vitamin B12 not produced in the rumen) Toxicity: In excess of 10 mg/kg diet DM Supplemental sources: Co sulfate, Co carbonate Co supply is limited, very expensive
Trace Minerals Zinc Requirement: Growing: 30 mg/kg feed DM Lactating: 60 mg/kg feed DM Poor growth, listlessness, loss of wool, poor reproduction, perakaratotic lesions Toxicity: > 500 mg/kg feed Reduced feed intake, Cu deficiency Supplemental sources: Zn sulfate, Zn methionine, Zn oxide Efficiency of absorption is 15%
Trace Minerals Iodine Requirement: 0.1 to 0.8 mg/kg diet DM is adequate. Greater requirement for lactation than growth, not increased by pregnancy. Dry cow mg/kg DM Lactating cow mg/kg Deficiency: Less thyroid hormones, enlarged thyroid glands, weak or dead lambs, calves born hairless, weak or dead Goitrogens in feed can increase requirement.
Trace Minerals Iodine Toxicity: In excess of 5 mg/kg diet DM. Reduced feed intake, less gain, nasal discharge, salvation, decreased milk production. Supplemental sources: Ethylenediamine dihydroiodine (often fed to reduce foot rot in cattle, predominant source of I for ruminants), iodides of Ca, Na & K (Often added to salt) 80 to 90% of dietary I is absorbed.
Trace Minerals Copper Requirement: Beef cattle 8 to 10 mg/kg diet DM is adequate. Dairy cattle Endogeous loss ug/kg body wt Lactation mg/kg milk Gestation to 1.5 mg/day Dietary Cu 4% available Absorption is decreased by sulfur (>.20%), Mo (2 mg/kg), Fe ( mg/kg), Zn (>40 mg/kg) in the feed.
Trace Minerals Copper Deficiency: Loss of hair pigment, anemia, poor growth, muscle incoordination, stringy wool, weak lambs, reduced growth, rough hair coat, scours. Toxicity: Sheep mg/kg feed DM Cattle - 40 to 100 mg/kg feed DM Supplemental sources: Cu sulfate (most available), Cu carbonate, Cu oxide (not readily available, lowest cost, most often used).
Trace Minerals Iron Requirement: Sheep - 30 mg/kg feed DM Cattle - 50 to 100 mg/kg feed DM Anemia, poor growth, listlessness, increased respiration. Most feeds have adequate Fe for adults. Milk-fed calves require supplemental Fe. Fe +++ poorly absorbed.
Trace Minerals Iron Toxicity: > 1000 mg/kg feed 250 to 500 mg/kg feed may reduce Cu absorption. Reduced feed intake, diarrhea, poor growth Supplemental sources: Fe sulfate (most available), Fe chloride, Fe carbonate (most used by feed industry), Fe oxide (least available - should not be used)
Trace Minerals Manganese Requirement: 20 mg/kg feed DM Requirement affected by high Ca and Fe - Increased excretion in feces Poor growth, skeletal abnormalities, poor reproduction Toxicity: > 1000 ppm Reduced feed intake, diarrhea Supplemental sources: Mn sulfate (most available, more expensive), Mn oxide (most often used). Forages contain more Mn than grains, corn is low. Absorption - <1.0%
Trace Minerals Molybdenum Requirement: Sheep mg/kg feed DM Requirement affected by high S. Deficiency not observed in cattle. Toxicity: 5 to 20 mg/kg diet Cu deficiency, (anemia), reduced growth, infertility, diarrhea Supplemental sources: Most feeds are adequate.
Trace Minerals Selenium Requirement: 0.1 mg/kg feed DM Supplementation in Se deficient areas 0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg feed DM Absorption is 45 to 60% Degeneration of heart and skeletal muscles (white muscle disease - young calves and lambs), embryonic deaths, slow growth. High sulfur may reduce absorption. Related to vitamin E.
Trace Minerals Selenium Toxicity: > 2 mg/kg diet Blind staggers, sulleness, head lowered, ears drooped, loss of hair from tail, swollen feet, sloughing of hooves Supplemental sources: Na selenite, Na selenate (not used very much) FDA: Supplement up to 0.3 mg/kg diet DM
Trace Minerals Nickel Requirement: Not established. Component of urease in bacteria. May be important for urease activity in the rumen Toxicity: > 50 mg/kg diet
Vitamins Fat soluble Vitamins A, D, E and K Water soluble Thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B 12, vitamin C, choline Water soluble vitamins synthesized in the rumen or in body tissues
Vitamin A (Retinol) Vitamin of most practical importance in ruminant feeds Deficiency most likely: High concentrate feeds Mature - drought pastures Long stored feeds Sunlight, air, high temperatures Heavily process feeds Ruminants do not efficiently convert carotene to vitamin A. 1 mg carotene400 IU vitamin A
Vitamin A Deficiency Reduced feed intake - slow growth Rough hair coat Edema of joints and brisket Watery eyes Night blindness Low conception Still births
Vitamin A Requirements Dairy cattle 110 IU/kg body wt Supplemental Vitamin A (retinol) 1 IU of Vit A activity = ug of all-trans retinyl acetate ug all-trans retinyl palmitate
Vitamin A Vitamin A stored in the liver when intake of vitamin A or carotene is high. Vitamin A in the liver has about 4 weeks of half life. Should not depend on more that 2 to 4 months of protection from storage of vitamin A in the liver. Ruminants have a high tolerance for vitamin A.
Vitamin D Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2) - found in plants Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) - found in animals Vit D225-hydroxy-vit D3 (in liver) 1, 25-dihydroxy-vit D3 (in kidney) 1,25-dihydroxy-vit D3 is active form of vitamin. Vitamin D not stored in the body in any quantity
Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets in calves Swollen and stiff joints Reduced feed intake Tetany Weak bones Vitamin D can be toxic High blood Ca Calcification of soft tissues Loss of appetite
Vitamin D Requirement IU/kg Feed DM All beef cattle275 Growing lambs185 Gestating ewes216 Lactating ewes148 Lactating dairy30 IU/kg body wt Dry pregnant cows30 IU/kg body wt Animals fed sun cured hays and/or kept in sunlight have limited needs for supplemental vitamin D
Vitamin E (Tocopherols) Deficiency White muscle disease Weak muscles Retained placenta Reduced reproduction Reduced disease resistance Toxicity not demonstrated in ruminants Vitamin E not extensively stored in the body
Vitamin E Requirement IU/kg feed DM All beef cattle 15 to 60 Pregnant and lactating cows20 Growing heifers25 All sheep15 Related to adequacy of selenium Feedlot cattle Feed 500 IU/day for 100 days. Extend shelf life of beef cuts in the sales case
Vitamin E Dairy Dry cows 60 days before calving 80 IU/kg feed DM Based on reduction in mastitis and immune function Lactating cows 20 IU/kg feed DM Needs to be increased when poor quality forage is fed or feeds have low Se content
Vitamin K Adequate vitamin K (menaquinones) synthesized by bacteria in the rumen No established requirement Cattle fed moldy sweet clover have prolonged clotting of blood - “sweet clover disease”. A fungus produces dicoumarol that is a metabolic antagonist of vitamin K.
Thiamin Adequate quantities normally produced by the bacteria in the rumen. Thiaminase and thiamin antimetabolites produced in ruminants fed rapidly fermented diets. Infrequently polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disorder of the central nervous system, develops. Retracted head, weakness, collapse, blindness are symptoms.
Thiamin Benefits from supplementation with thiamin are inconsistent. 100 to 500 mg thiamin/day Recommended. It has long been speculated that feeding high levels of sulfur (greater than 0.5% of diet) will also cause PEM. It is recommended to feed thiamin to prevent.
Thiamin Feeding high amounts of sulfur does not reduce blood thiamin. Feeding sulfur causes a transient increase in hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the rumen. During this time cattle are subject to a condition resembling PEM.
Other Water Soluble Vitamins Not required in diet of ruminants Riboflavin Niacin Supplementation may benefit Pyridoxine high producing animals Pantothenic acid Biotin Folic acid Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Choline Ruminants with functional rumens obtain water soluble vitamins from the digestive tract.