2 Calcium Requirements Beef Cattle - 1996 Maintenance: mg Ca/kg body wtGain: g Ca/100 g protein gainLactation: g Ca/kg milkPregnancy: g Ca/kg fetal wtDistributed over last 3 monthsCorrect for percentage of dietary Ca absorbedTrue absorption = 50%Requirement = Sum of fractions/0.5
3 Calcium Requirements Dairy Cattle - 2001 Requirements as absorbed Ca, g/dMaintenanceNonlactating: g/kg body wtLactating: 0.031g/kg body wtGrowth(9.83*(mature wt0.22)*(body wt-0.22))*wt gain
5 Calcium Absorbed from duodenum and jejunum. Active and passive absorption.Vitamin D required for active absorption.Efficiency of Ca absorption declines withage and increases during lactation.Some forms of Ca not readily absorbedOxylates - found in legumes.Fat can reduce Ca absorption.
6 Calcium Ca deficiency Rickets (abnormal bone development) in young Osteomalacia (demineralized bone)in adultBlood Ca not adequate indicator
7 Sources of Calcium Feeds: Forages (leaves) tend to be high Grains tend to be lowSupplemental: % CaCa carbonateGround limestone - Ca carbonate 34.0Bone mealDicalcium phosphateCa sulfate
8 Phosphorus Requirements Beef cattle - 1996 Maintenance: mg P/kg body wtGain: g P/100 g protein gainLactation: .95g P/kg milkPregnancy: 7.6 g P/kg fetal wtDistributed over last 3 monthsCorrect for percentage of dietary P absorbedTrue absorption = 68%Requirement = Sum of fractions/0.68
10 Phosphorus Requirements Dairy Cattle - 2001 Pregnancy:See publicationLactation:0.90 g of P/kg milkAbsorption of PForages - 64%Concentrates - 70%Inorganic Ca - 70%
11 Phosphorus Absorption occurs from small intestine. Absorption is an active process.Active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxy) stimulates.Influenced by source, Ca, intestinal pH, Fe, Al, Mn, K, Mg, fat.
13 Sources of Phosphorus Feeds: Forages tend to be low - dependent on soil P.Grains tend to be moderate to high.Phytate P is utilized by ruminants.Supplemental: % PDicalcium phosphate 19.3Bone mealAmmonium P (Mono) 24.7
14 Calcium and Phosphorus Ruminants will tolerate Ca:P ratios of1:1 to 7:1.At ratios above and below this range,there is poor growth and decreasednutrient utilization.Feeding too much P may cause boneresorption, elevated plasma P and urinarycalculi.
15 Magnesium Requirement Beef cattle Growing and finishing: 0.10 % of dietGestating cows: % of dietLactating cows: % of dietGrowth mg/kg gainLactation mg/kg milkPregnancy , 0.21 and 0.33mg/d for early, mid and late pregnancy
16 Magnesium Requirement Dairy Cattle - 2001 Requirements as absorbed Mg, g/dMaintenanceLactating & nonlactating: 3 mg/kg body wtGrowth0.45 g/kg body wtPregnancy0.33 g/day
18 Magnesium Deficiencies: Young calves kept on milk diet: Loss of appetite, poor performance,increased excitability, tetanyYoung: anorexia, convulsions, profusesalivation, excitableLactating cows grazing lush pasture:Tetany (grass tetany), poor absorptionof Mg
19 Magnesium Mg is absorbed from the rumen. Absorption is high in young animalsfed milk and declines with age.Mg in grains more available thanMg in forages.Excess Mg is excreted in urine. Cattleand sheep will tolerate 0.4 %to 0.5% Mg.
20 MagnesiumFeeds: Plants are quite variable depending on species, soil concentrations, stage of growth, environmental temperature.Legumes higher than grasses.Grains usually contain 0.11 to 0.17 %.Plant proteins sources 0.20 to 0.35 %.Supplemental: %MgOMgSOMgCOMg in dolmitic limestone is poorly available.
21 Potassium Requirement Beef - 1996 Growing 0.6 % of dietBeef cows 0.5 to 0.7 % of dietLactation Increase 0.1 %DeficiencyReduced feed intake, poor growth,rough hair coat, chewing on wood,reduced milk productionK absorbed from rumen and omasumas well as intestine.
22 Potassium Requirement Dairy - 2001 Growing and nonlactating0.038 g/kg body wt g/kg DM intakeLactating0.038 g/kg body wt g/kg DM intakeGrowth1.6 g/kg gain
23 Potassium Requirement Dairy - 2001 PregnancySee publicationLactation1.5 g/kg milkDietary K 90% available
24 Potassium Forages are excellent sources of K, >1%. Decreases with maturity.Grains are often poorer sources of K, 0.4%.SupplementalPotassium chloride %Potassium bicarbonate %Potassium sulfate %StressHeat - TransportationPerformance improved by levels of1.0% to 1.2% of diet DM.
26 Sodium Dairy - 2001 Maintenance Growing and nonlactating 1.5 g/100 kg body wtLactating3.8 g/100kg body wtGrowth g/kg of daily gainPregnancy See publicationLactation g/kg milkDietary Na 100% available
27 Sodium Deficiency Chewing wood, licking dirt, reduced feed intake, reduced gain.ToxicityRuminants tolerate high concentrationsof salt in feeds - up to 9 to 10% of feed DM.1.25 to 2.0% salt in water will reduce waterand feed intake, weight loss and physicalcollapse.
28 Sodium Feeds of plant origin usually have inadequate sodium. Feeds of animal origin have higherconcentrations of sodium.% Na %ClNaClNaCHO3 27.0Feed 0.2% to 0.3% of total diet as NaCl.If NaCl is fed, Cl requirements are met.
29 Chlorine Dairy - 2001 Maintenance 2.25 g/100 kg body wt Growth 1.0 g/kg of daily gainPregnancy See publicationLactation g/kg milkDietary Cl 90% available
31 Cation - Anion Balance of diet If negative there tends to be metabolic acidosisDecreased feed intake andperformance - All animalsStrategy used in dairy cowsprior to calving to prevent milk feverFeed:Ammonium chloride, Calcium chloride,Magnesium chloride, hydrochloric acid
32 Cation - Anion Balance of diet If positive there tends to be metabolicalkalosisBenefits to having positive CAB forgrowing animals and lactating cowsDo not know what ratio should befor beef cattle in feedlot.+200 to +300 Meq/kg feed DM forlactating cows and young calves
33 Grass Tetany Result of low blood Mg Lactating cows grazing lush spring forage and 1 to 3 weeks into lactationForage low in Mg & Na, high in K & NRemoval of 0.15 g Mg for each liter of milkPoor absorption of MgLoss of coordination, coma, deathTreatment: Intravenous Ca and MgPrevent: Supplement Mg
34 Trace Minerals Sulfur Requirement: 0.15 to 0.2% of diet is adequate. N:S ratio of 10:1.Required for synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids by rumen organisms.Poor growth, excessive salvation, reducedwool growth, reduced rumen function.
35 Trace Minerals Sulfur Toxicity: > 0.5% of diet Reduced feed intake, restlessness, diarrhea.Water may contain high concentrations ofsulfates. Up to 5,000 ppm.Supplemental sources: Sulfates, elementalS, sulfur amino acids.
36 Trace Minerals Cobalt Requirement: 0.08 to 0.2 mg/kg diet DM is adequate. Dairy-2001 indicates 0.11mg/kgPoor growth lack of appetite, weakness,decreased wool growth, decreased useof propionate (Vitamin B12 not produced inthe rumen)Toxicity: In excess of 10 mg/kg diet DMSupplemental sources: Co sulfate, CocarbonateCo supply is limited, very expensive
37 Trace Minerals Zinc Requirement: Growing: 30 mg/kg feed DM Lactating: 60 mg/kg feed DMPoor growth, listlessness, loss of wool,poor reproduction, perakaratotic lesionsToxicity: > 500 mg/kg feedReduced feed intake, Cu deficiencySupplemental sources: Zn sulfate, Zn methionine, Zn oxideEfficiency of absorption is 15%
38 Trace Minerals Iodine Requirement: 0.1 to 0.8 mg/kg diet DM is adequate. Greater requirement forlactation than growth, not increased bypregnancy. Dry cow mg/kg DMLactating cow mg/kgDeficiency: Less thyroid hormones, enlargedthyroid glands, weak or dead lambs, calvesborn hairless, weak or deadGoitrogens in feed can increase requirement.
39 Trace Minerals Iodine Toxicity: In excess of 5 mg/kg diet DM. Reduced feed intake, less gain, nasaldischarge, salvation, decreased milkproduction.Supplemental sources: Ethylenediaminedihydroiodine (often fed to reduce foot rotin cattle, predominant source of I forruminants), iodides of Ca, Na & K (Oftenadded to salt)80 to 90% of dietary I is absorbed.
40 Trace Minerals Copper Requirement: Beef cattle 8 to 10 mg/kg diet DM is adequate.Dairy cattleEndogeous loss ug/kg body wtLactation mg/kg milkGestation to 1.5 mg/dayDietary Cu 4% availableAbsorption is decreased by sulfur (>.20%), Mo (2 mg/kg), Fe ( mg/kg), Zn (>40 mg/kg) in the feed.
41 Trace Minerals Copper Deficiency: Loss of hair pigment, anemia, poor growth, muscle incoordination, stringywool, weak lambs, reduced growth, roughhair coat, scours.Toxicity: Sheep mg/kg feed DMCattle - 40 to 100 mg/kg feed DMSupplemental sources: Cu sulfate (mostavailable), Cu carbonate, Cu oxide (notreadily available, lowest cost, mostoften used).
42 Trace Minerals Iron Requirement: Sheep - 30 mg/kg feed DM Cattle - 50 to 100 mg/kg feed DMAnemia, poor growth, listlessness,increased respiration.Most feeds have adequate Fe for adults.Milk-fed calves require supplemental Fe.Fe+++ poorly absorbed.
43 Trace Minerals Iron Toxicity: > 1000 mg/kg feed 250 to 500 mg/kg feed may reduce Cuabsorption.Reduced feed intake, diarrhea, poor growthSupplemental sources: Fe sulfate (mostavailable), Fe chloride, Fe carbonate (mostused by feed industry), Fe oxide (leastavailable - should not be used)
44 Trace Minerals Manganese Requirement: 20 mg/kg feed DMRequirement affected by high Ca andFe - Increased excretion in fecesPoor growth, skeletal abnormalities, poor reproductionToxicity: > 1000 ppmReduced feed intake, diarrheaSupplemental sources: Mn sulfate (most available, more expensive), Mn oxide (most often used). Forages contain more Mn than grains, corn is low Absorption - <1.0%
45 Trace Minerals Molybdenum Requirement: Sheep mg/kg feed DMRequirement affected by high S.Deficiency not observed in cattle.Toxicity: 5 to 20 mg/kg dietCu deficiency, (anemia), reduced growth, infertility, diarrheaSupplemental sources: Most feeds are adequate.
46 Trace Minerals Selenium Requirement: 0.1 mg/kg feed DMSupplementation in Se deficient areas0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg feed DMAbsorption is 45 to 60%Degeneration of heart and skeletal muscles (white muscle disease - young calves and lambs), embryonic deaths, slow growth.High sulfur may reduce absorption. Related to vitamin E.
47 Trace Minerals Selenium Toxicity: > 2 mg/kg dietBlind staggers, sulleness, head lowered,ears drooped, loss of hair from tail,swollen feet, sloughing of hoovesSupplemental sources: Na selenite,Na selenate (not used very much)FDA:Supplement up to 0.3 mg/kg diet DM
48 Trace Minerals Nickel Requirement: Not established. Component of urease in bacteria.May be important for urease activityin the rumenToxicity: > 50 mg/kg diet
49 Toxic Minerals Maximum Tolerable Concentrations mg/kg feedAluminum 1,000ArsenicBromineCadmiumFluorineLeadMercury
50 Vitamins Fat soluble Vitamins A, D, E and K Water soluble Thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, pyridoxine,pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid,vitamin B12, vitamin C, cholineWater soluble vitamins synthesized inthe rumen or in body tissues
51 Vitamin A (Retinol) Vitamin of most practical importance in ruminant feedsDeficiency most likely:High concentrate feedsMature - drought pasturesLong stored feedsSunlight, air, high temperaturesHeavily process feedsRuminants do not efficiently convertcarotene to vitamin A.1 mg carotene 400 IU vitamin A
52 Vitamin A Deficiency Reduced feed intake - slow growth Rough hair coat Edema of joints and brisketWatery eyesNight blindnessLow conceptionStill births
54 Vitamin A Requirements Dairy cattle 110 IU/kg body wt Supplemental Vitamin A (retinol)1 IU of Vit A activity =0.344 ug of all-trans retinyl acetate0.550 ug all-trans retinyl palmitate
55 Vitamin A Vitamin A stored in the liver when intake of vitamin A or carotene is high.Vitamin A in the liver has about 4 weeks ofhalf life.Should not depend on more that 2 to 4months of protection from storage ofvitamin A in the liver.Ruminants have a high tolerance forvitamin A.
56 Vitamin D Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2) - found in plants Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) - found in animalsVit D2 25-hydroxy-vit D3 (in liver)1, 25-dihydroxy-vit D3 (in kidney)1,25-dihydroxy-vit D3 is active form of vitamin.Vitamin D not stored in the body in any quantity
57 Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets in calves Swollen and stiff joints Reduced feed intakeTetanyWeak bonesVitamin D can be toxicHigh blood CaCalcification of soft tissuesLoss of appetite
58 Vitamin D Requirement IU/kg Feed DM All beef cattle 275 Growing lambs 185Gestating ewes 216Lactating ewes 148Lactating dairy 30 IU/kg body wtDry pregnant cows 30 IU/kg body wtAnimals fed sun cured hays and/or keptin sunlight have limited needs for supplemental vitamin D
59 Vitamin E (Tocopherols) DeficiencyWhite muscle diseaseWeak musclesRetained placentaReduced reproductionReduced disease resistanceToxicity not demonstrated in ruminantsVitamin E not extensively stored in thebody
60 Vitamin E Requirement IU/kg feed DM All beef cattle 15 to 60 Pregnant and lactating cows 20Growing heifers 25All sheep 15Related to adequacy of seleniumFeedlot cattleFeed 500 IU/day for 100 days.Extend shelf life of beef cuts in the sales case
61 Vitamin E Dairy - 2001 Dry cows 60 days before calving 80 IU/kg feed DMBased on reduction in mastitis andimmune functionLactating cows20 IU/kg feed DMNeeds to be increased when poor qualityforage is fed or feeds have low Se content
62 Vitamin K Adequate vitamin K (menaquinones) synthesized by bacteria in the rumenNo established requirementCattle fed moldy sweet clover haveprolonged clotting of blood - “sweetclover disease”. A fungus producesdicoumarol that is a metabolicantagonist of vitamin K.
63 ThiaminAdequate quantities normally produced by the bacteria in the rumen.Thiaminase and thiamin antimetabolites producedin ruminants fed rapidly fermented diets.Infrequently polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disorder of the central nervous system, develops.Retracted head, weakness, collapse, blindnessare symptoms.
64 Thiamin Benefits from supplementation with thiamin are inconsistent. 100 to 500 mg thiamin/dayRecommended.It has long been speculated that feeding highlevels of sulfur (greater than 0.5% of diet) willalso cause PEM. It is recommended to feedthiamin to prevent.
65 Thiamin Feeding high amounts of sulfur does not reduce blood thiamin. Feeding sulfur causes a transient increase inhydrogen sulfide concentrations in the rumen.During this time cattle are subject to acondition resembling PEM.
66 Other Water Soluble Vitamins Not required in diet of ruminants RiboflavinNiacin Supplementation may benefit Pyridoxine high producing animalsPantothenic acidBiotinFolic acidVitamin B12Vitamin CCholineRuminants with functional rumens obtain water soluble vitamins from the digestive tract.