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Calcium Requirements Beef Cattle

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2 Calcium Requirements Beef Cattle - 1996
Maintenance: mg Ca/kg body wt Gain: g Ca/100 g protein gain Lactation: g Ca/kg milk Pregnancy: g Ca/kg fetal wt Distributed over last 3 months Correct for percentage of dietary Ca absorbed True absorption = 50% Requirement = Sum of fractions/0.5

3 Calcium Requirements Dairy Cattle - 2001
Requirements as absorbed Ca, g/d Maintenance Nonlactating: g/kg body wt Lactating: 0.031g/kg body wt Growth (9.83*(mature wt0.22)*(body wt-0.22))*wt gain

4 Calcium Requirements Dairy Cattle - 2001
Pregnancy See publication Lactation g/kg milk: 1.22 Holstein, 1.45 Jersey, 1.37 other Absorption of Ca Forages - 30% Concentrates - 60% Inorganic Ca - 75%

5 Calcium Absorbed from duodenum and jejunum.
Active and passive absorption. Vitamin D required for active absorption. Efficiency of Ca absorption declines with age and increases during lactation. Some forms of Ca not readily absorbed Oxylates - found in legumes. Fat can reduce Ca absorption.

6 Calcium Ca deficiency Rickets (abnormal bone development) in young
Osteomalacia (demineralized bone) in adult Blood Ca not adequate indicator

7 Sources of Calcium Feeds: Forages (leaves) tend to be high
Grains tend to be low Supplemental: % Ca Ca carbonate Ground limestone - Ca carbonate 34.0 Bone meal Dicalcium phosphate Ca sulfate

8 Phosphorus Requirements Beef cattle - 1996
Maintenance: mg P/kg body wt Gain: g P/100 g protein gain Lactation: .95g P/kg milk Pregnancy: 7.6 g P/kg fetal wt Distributed over last 3 months Correct for percentage of dietary P absorbed True absorption = 68% Requirement = Sum of fractions/0.68

9 Phosphorus Requirements Dairy Cattle - 2001
Requirements as absorbed P, g/d Maintenance Lactating &nonlactating: 1.0 g/kg DM intake Growth (1.2 + (4.635*mature wt0.22)*(body wt-0.22)))*wt gain

10 Phosphorus Requirements Dairy Cattle - 2001
Pregnancy: See publication Lactation: 0.90 g of P/kg milk Absorption of P Forages - 64% Concentrates - 70% Inorganic Ca - 70%

11 Phosphorus Absorption occurs from small intestine.
Absorption is an active process. Active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxy) stimulates. Influenced by source, Ca, intestinal pH, Fe, Al, Mn, K, Mg, fat.

12 Phosphorus Deficiency: Poor appetite Weak fragile bones Low conception
Poor growth Poor feed efficiency Low blood P

13 Sources of Phosphorus Feeds: Forages tend to be low - dependent
on soil P. Grains tend to be moderate to high. Phytate P is utilized by ruminants. Supplemental: % P Dicalcium phosphate 19.3 Bone meal Ammonium P (Mono) 24.7

14 Calcium and Phosphorus
Ruminants will tolerate Ca:P ratios of 1:1 to 7:1. At ratios above and below this range, there is poor growth and decreased nutrient utilization. Feeding too much P may cause bone resorption, elevated plasma P and urinary calculi.

15 Magnesium Requirement Beef cattle
Growing and finishing: 0.10 % of diet Gestating cows: % of diet Lactating cows: % of diet Growth mg/kg gain Lactation mg/kg milk Pregnancy , 0.21 and 0.33 mg/d for early, mid and late pregnancy

16 Magnesium Requirement Dairy Cattle - 2001
Requirements as absorbed Mg, g/d Maintenance Lactating & nonlactating: 3 mg/kg body wt Growth 0.45 g/kg body wt Pregnancy 0.33 g/day

17 Magnesium Requirement Dairy Cattle - 2001
Lactation 0.15 g/kg milk Absorption of Mg Feedstuffs 16% Mg oxide 50%

18 Magnesium Deficiencies: Young calves kept on milk diet:
Loss of appetite, poor performance, increased excitability, tetany Young: anorexia, convulsions, profuse salivation, excitable Lactating cows grazing lush pasture: Tetany (grass tetany), poor absorption of Mg

19 Magnesium Mg is absorbed from the rumen.
Absorption is high in young animals fed milk and declines with age. Mg in grains more available than Mg in forages. Excess Mg is excreted in urine. Cattle and sheep will tolerate 0.4 %to 0.5% Mg.

20 Magnesium Feeds: Plants are quite variable depending on species, soil concentrations, stage of growth, environmental temperature. Legumes higher than grasses. Grains usually contain 0.11 to 0.17 %. Plant proteins sources 0.20 to 0.35 %. Supplemental: % MgO MgSO MgCO Mg in dolmitic limestone is poorly available.

21 Potassium Requirement Beef - 1996
Growing 0.6 % of diet Beef cows 0.5 to 0.7 % of diet Lactation Increase 0.1 % Deficiency Reduced feed intake, poor growth, rough hair coat, chewing on wood, reduced milk production K absorbed from rumen and omasum as well as intestine.

22 Potassium Requirement Dairy - 2001
Growing and nonlactating 0.038 g/kg body wt g/kg DM intake Lactating 0.038 g/kg body wt g/kg DM intake Growth 1.6 g/kg gain

23 Potassium Requirement Dairy - 2001
Pregnancy See publication Lactation 1.5 g/kg milk Dietary K 90% available

24 Potassium Forages are excellent sources of K, >1%.
Decreases with maturity. Grains are often poorer sources of K, 0.4%. Supplemental Potassium chloride % Potassium bicarbonate % Potassium sulfate % Stress Heat - Transportation Performance improved by levels of 1.0% to 1.2% of diet DM.

25 Sodium Beef - 1996 Requirement Nonlactating 0.06% - 0.08% of diet DM

26 Sodium Dairy - 2001 Maintenance Growing and nonlactating
1.5 g/100 kg body wt Lactating 3.8 g/100kg body wt Growth g/kg of daily gain Pregnancy See publication Lactation g/kg milk Dietary Na 100% available

27 Sodium Deficiency Chewing wood, licking dirt, reduced
feed intake, reduced gain. Toxicity Ruminants tolerate high concentrations of salt in feeds - up to 9 to 10% of feed DM. 1.25 to 2.0% salt in water will reduce water and feed intake, weight loss and physical collapse.

28 Sodium Feeds of plant origin usually have inadequate
sodium. Feeds of animal origin have higher concentrations of sodium. % Na %Cl NaCl NaCHO3 27.0 Feed 0.2% to 0.3% of total diet as NaCl. If NaCl is fed, Cl requirements are met.

29 Chlorine Dairy - 2001 Maintenance 2.25 g/100 kg body wt
Growth 1.0 g/kg of daily gain Pregnancy See publication Lactation g/kg milk Dietary Cl 90% available

30 Cation - Anion Balance of diet
Meq((Na+K) - (Cl))/kg Diet DM Meq ((Na+K) - (Cl+S))/kg Diet DM Meq((Na+K+0.15Ca+0.15Mg) - (Cl+0.6S+ 0.5P))/kg Diet DM

31 Cation - Anion Balance of diet
If negative there tends to be metabolic acidosis Decreased feed intake and performance - All animals Strategy used in dairy cows prior to calving to prevent milk fever Feed: Ammonium chloride, Calcium chloride, Magnesium chloride, hydrochloric acid

32 Cation - Anion Balance of diet
If positive there tends to be metabolic alkalosis Benefits to having positive CAB for growing animals and lactating cows Do not know what ratio should be for beef cattle in feedlot. +200 to +300 Meq/kg feed DM for lactating cows and young calves

33 Grass Tetany Result of low blood Mg Lactating cows grazing lush spring
forage and 1 to 3 weeks into lactation Forage low in Mg & Na, high in K & N Removal of 0.15 g Mg for each liter of milk Poor absorption of Mg Loss of coordination, coma, death Treatment: Intravenous Ca and Mg Prevent: Supplement Mg

34 Trace Minerals Sulfur Requirement: 0.15 to 0.2% of diet is adequate.
N:S ratio of 10:1. Required for synthesis of sulfur- containing amino acids by rumen organisms. Poor growth, excessive salvation, reduced wool growth, reduced rumen function.

35 Trace Minerals Sulfur Toxicity: > 0.5% of diet
Reduced feed intake, restlessness, diarrhea. Water may contain high concentrations of sulfates. Up to 5,000 ppm. Supplemental sources: Sulfates, elemental S, sulfur amino acids.

36 Trace Minerals Cobalt Requirement: 0.08 to 0.2 mg/kg diet DM
is adequate. Dairy-2001 indicates 0.11mg/kg Poor growth lack of appetite, weakness, decreased wool growth, decreased use of propionate (Vitamin B12 not produced in the rumen) Toxicity: In excess of 10 mg/kg diet DM Supplemental sources: Co sulfate, Co carbonate Co supply is limited, very expensive

37 Trace Minerals Zinc Requirement: Growing: 30 mg/kg feed DM
Lactating: 60 mg/kg feed DM Poor growth, listlessness, loss of wool, poor reproduction, perakaratotic lesions Toxicity: > 500 mg/kg feed Reduced feed intake, Cu deficiency Supplemental sources: Zn sulfate, Zn methionine, Zn oxide Efficiency of absorption is 15%

38 Trace Minerals Iodine Requirement: 0.1 to 0.8 mg/kg diet DM
is adequate. Greater requirement for lactation than growth, not increased by pregnancy. Dry cow mg/kg DM Lactating cow mg/kg Deficiency: Less thyroid hormones, enlarged thyroid glands, weak or dead lambs, calves born hairless, weak or dead Goitrogens in feed can increase requirement.

39 Trace Minerals Iodine Toxicity: In excess of 5 mg/kg diet DM.
Reduced feed intake, less gain, nasal discharge, salvation, decreased milk production. Supplemental sources: Ethylenediamine dihydroiodine (often fed to reduce foot rot in cattle, predominant source of I for ruminants), iodides of Ca, Na & K (Often added to salt) 80 to 90% of dietary I is absorbed.

40 Trace Minerals Copper Requirement: Beef cattle
8 to 10 mg/kg diet DM is adequate. Dairy cattle Endogeous loss ug/kg body wt Lactation mg/kg milk Gestation to 1.5 mg/day Dietary Cu 4% available Absorption is decreased by sulfur (>.20%), Mo (2 mg/kg), Fe ( mg/kg), Zn (>40 mg/kg) in the feed.

41 Trace Minerals Copper Deficiency: Loss of hair pigment, anemia,
poor growth, muscle incoordination, stringy wool, weak lambs, reduced growth, rough hair coat, scours. Toxicity: Sheep mg/kg feed DM Cattle - 40 to 100 mg/kg feed DM Supplemental sources: Cu sulfate (most available), Cu carbonate, Cu oxide (not readily available, lowest cost, most often used).

42 Trace Minerals Iron Requirement: Sheep - 30 mg/kg feed DM
Cattle - 50 to 100 mg/kg feed DM Anemia, poor growth, listlessness, increased respiration. Most feeds have adequate Fe for adults. Milk-fed calves require supplemental Fe. Fe+++ poorly absorbed.

43 Trace Minerals Iron Toxicity: > 1000 mg/kg feed
250 to 500 mg/kg feed may reduce Cu absorption. Reduced feed intake, diarrhea, poor growth Supplemental sources: Fe sulfate (most available), Fe chloride, Fe carbonate (most used by feed industry), Fe oxide (least available - should not be used)

44 Trace Minerals Manganese
Requirement: 20 mg/kg feed DM Requirement affected by high Ca and Fe - Increased excretion in feces Poor growth, skeletal abnormalities, poor reproduction Toxicity: > 1000 ppm Reduced feed intake, diarrhea Supplemental sources: Mn sulfate (most available, more expensive), Mn oxide (most often used). Forages contain more Mn than grains, corn is low Absorption - <1.0%

45 Trace Minerals Molybdenum
Requirement: Sheep mg/kg feed DM Requirement affected by high S. Deficiency not observed in cattle. Toxicity: 5 to 20 mg/kg diet Cu deficiency, (anemia), reduced growth, infertility, diarrhea Supplemental sources: Most feeds are adequate.

46 Trace Minerals Selenium
Requirement: 0.1 mg/kg feed DM Supplementation in Se deficient areas 0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg feed DM Absorption is 45 to 60% Degeneration of heart and skeletal muscles (white muscle disease - young calves and lambs), embryonic deaths, slow growth. High sulfur may reduce absorption. Related to vitamin E.

47 Trace Minerals Selenium
Toxicity: > 2 mg/kg diet Blind staggers, sulleness, head lowered, ears drooped, loss of hair from tail, swollen feet, sloughing of hooves Supplemental sources: Na selenite, Na selenate (not used very much) FDA: Supplement up to 0.3 mg/kg diet DM

48 Trace Minerals Nickel Requirement: Not established.
Component of urease in bacteria. May be important for urease activity in the rumen Toxicity: > 50 mg/kg diet

49 Toxic Minerals Maximum Tolerable Concentrations
mg/kg feed Aluminum 1,000 Arsenic Bromine Cadmium Fluorine Lead Mercury

50 Vitamins Fat soluble Vitamins A, D, E and K Water soluble
Thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin C, choline Water soluble vitamins synthesized in the rumen or in body tissues

51 Vitamin A (Retinol) Vitamin of most practical importance in
ruminant feeds Deficiency most likely: High concentrate feeds Mature - drought pastures Long stored feeds Sunlight, air, high temperatures Heavily process feeds Ruminants do not efficiently convert carotene to vitamin A. 1 mg carotene 400 IU vitamin A

52 Vitamin A Deficiency Reduced feed intake - slow growth Rough hair coat
Edema of joints and brisket Watery eyes Night blindness Low conception Still births

53 Vitamin A Requirements Cattle IU/kg feed DM Growing 2,200
Pregnant beef cows 2,800 Pregnant dairy cows 4,000 Lactating cows 3,900 Sheep Growing lambs 1,500 Gestating ewes 3,300 Lactating ewes 2,700

54 Vitamin A Requirements Dairy cattle 110 IU/kg body wt
Supplemental Vitamin A (retinol) 1 IU of Vit A activity = 0.344 ug of all-trans retinyl acetate 0.550 ug all-trans retinyl palmitate

55 Vitamin A Vitamin A stored in the liver when intake of
vitamin A or carotene is high. Vitamin A in the liver has about 4 weeks of half life. Should not depend on more that 2 to 4 months of protection from storage of vitamin A in the liver. Ruminants have a high tolerance for vitamin A.

56 Vitamin D Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2) - found in plants
Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) - found in animals Vit D2 25-hydroxy-vit D3 (in liver) 1, 25-dihydroxy-vit D3 (in kidney) 1,25-dihydroxy-vit D3 is active form of vitamin. Vitamin D not stored in the body in any quantity

57 Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets in calves Swollen and stiff joints
Reduced feed intake Tetany Weak bones Vitamin D can be toxic High blood Ca Calcification of soft tissues Loss of appetite

58 Vitamin D Requirement IU/kg Feed DM All beef cattle 275
Growing lambs 185 Gestating ewes 216 Lactating ewes 148 Lactating dairy 30 IU/kg body wt Dry pregnant cows 30 IU/kg body wt Animals fed sun cured hays and/or kept in sunlight have limited needs for supplemental vitamin D

59 Vitamin E (Tocopherols)
Deficiency White muscle disease Weak muscles Retained placenta Reduced reproduction Reduced disease resistance Toxicity not demonstrated in ruminants Vitamin E not extensively stored in the body

60 Vitamin E Requirement IU/kg feed DM All beef cattle 15 to 60
Pregnant and lactating cows 20 Growing heifers 25 All sheep 15 Related to adequacy of selenium Feedlot cattle Feed 500 IU/day for 100 days. Extend shelf life of beef cuts in the sales case

61 Vitamin E Dairy - 2001 Dry cows 60 days before calving
80 IU/kg feed DM Based on reduction in mastitis and immune function Lactating cows 20 IU/kg feed DM Needs to be increased when poor quality forage is fed or feeds have low Se content

62 Vitamin K Adequate vitamin K (menaquinones)
synthesized by bacteria in the rumen No established requirement Cattle fed moldy sweet clover have prolonged clotting of blood - “sweet clover disease”. A fungus produces dicoumarol that is a metabolic antagonist of vitamin K.

63 Thiamin Adequate quantities normally produced by the bacteria in the rumen. Thiaminase and thiamin antimetabolites produced in ruminants fed rapidly fermented diets. Infrequently polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disorder of the central nervous system, develops. Retracted head, weakness, collapse, blindness are symptoms.

64 Thiamin Benefits from supplementation with thiamin
are inconsistent. 100 to 500 mg thiamin/day Recommended. It has long been speculated that feeding high levels of sulfur (greater than 0.5% of diet) will also cause PEM. It is recommended to feed thiamin to prevent.

65 Thiamin Feeding high amounts of sulfur does not reduce blood thiamin.
Feeding sulfur causes a transient increase in hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the rumen. During this time cattle are subject to a condition resembling PEM.

66 Other Water Soluble Vitamins Not required in diet of ruminants
Riboflavin Niacin Supplementation may benefit Pyridoxine high producing animals Pantothenic acid Biotin Folic acid Vitamin B12 Vitamin C Choline Ruminants with functional rumens obtain water soluble vitamins from the digestive tract.

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