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Katherine Lamb Bernice Lin Hannah Heyerdahl

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Presentation on theme: "Katherine Lamb Bernice Lin Hannah Heyerdahl"— Presentation transcript:

1 Katherine Lamb Bernice Lin Hannah Heyerdahl
MEXICO Katherine Lamb Bernice Lin Hannah Heyerdahl

2 PIRATES for Mexican independence from Spain
POLITICS The Plan of Iguala was passed and was the first steps to an independent Mexico. This plan also confirmed that Roman Catholicism would be the religion and Spanish born people in Mexico would potentially have equal status. At the beginning of Mexico’s Independence, Iturbide made himself the Emperor of Mexico and this only benefitted the elite classes until he got dethroned. INTELLECT After the Two main rebellion leaders (Hidalgo and Jose Maria Morelos Pavon) died the big army that they worked so hard to make fell into small groups. These groups were uncoordinated and used guerrilla warfare to try to bring down their enemies. RELIGION September 16, 1810 pastor/ Father Hidalgo (one of the main movement leaders) who was Roman Catholic, held a speech at the parish of Dolores uniting peasants and giving the famous “El Grito” (the cry). People’s closeness to the church helped them gather together and start the rebellion.

3 PIRATES for Mexican independence from spain
ARTS/ARCHITECTURE Now that Mexico is becoming separate from Spain they are having less Spanish influences. Their churches and buildings are now having more of a French and Italian Influence. Now that Mexico is independent they get to build new towns and cities. Building cities in grids, and using the French idea of a tree-lined blvd.. People also started to building offices, colleges, and theatres. TECHNOLOGY After Hidalgo and Allende gained over 100,000 mestizos and other lower class people to fight they started to take over city by city. The only weapons they used were clubs, slings, axes, knives and machetes. These men were going up against the Spanish military and couldn’t capture Mexico City. ECONOMICS Mexico’s independence brought the people jobs and boosted the economy. People got jobs from building and setting up new businesses. Both sides suffered debt from their armies. Hidalgo didn’t have enough money to get the needed military weapons to defeat the Spanish army. Because of all the fighting in the Mexican cities the agriculture went down and so did its commerce. The Spanish spent tons of money to get troops to Mexico to try and stop the rebellions and failed in the end. SOCIETY The main reason for the push for independence was that the lower class people wanted more equality. The class system was very strict starting with people who were born in Spain, creoles, mestizos then native Indians and Afro-Americans.

4 PIRATES for Mexican Revolution
POLITICS The Mexican Revolution started because the President, Porfirio Diaz, was in office for 31 years. Power and money was only in the hands of a small portion of the population. Most of the people weren’t able to participate in politics and didn’t have any say; they wanted to switch to a real democracy. INTELLECT President Diaz was disliked by liberal writers and journalists too. These writers wrote to defend the constitution and liberal representatives were executed for their involvement. Some writers fled to the United States to avoid persecution. RELIGION The people stayed with the Roman Catholic Church through the Mexican Revolution. All of the violence and uncertainty caused the people to become closer with god.

5 PIRATES for Mexican Revolution
ARTS/ARCHITECTURE During and after President Diaz’s power Mexico started to have a vision for Mexico. They wanted to build cities like cities in Europe. They started to import Italian marble and European Granite. They also imported stained glass for elaborate windows and churches. TECHNOLOGY People living in Mexico started to import cast iron and bronze from Europe. They used the cast iron for new building structures and parts for military weapons. ECONOMICS After the Mexican Revolution the economy tanked. The population had a sharp decrease, livestock suffered, and food products were unharvested because farmers joined the fight or fled it. The decline in the economy resulted in an uprising in the black market while the currency and banking disappeared. SOCIETY President Diaz made the people very unhappy, the middle and upper classes didn’t like the way he ran his government. The lower class had their land taken away, low wages, horrible working conditions, bad housing and inflation. The Mexican revolution was so violent and destructive that a lot of the people fled to the United States to have a better life style.

6 CHRONOLOGY OF CHANGES Mexican independence from Spain 1807, Napoleon I invaded Spain and installed his brother on the Spanish throne Napoleon deposed Spanish king and replaced him with his brother, Joseph, creating a revolution and the Peninsular War and, ultimately, his own downfall On September 15th, in the town of Dolores, father Miguel Hidalgo issues a cry for Mexico's independence from Spain nd Mexican empire On May 5th, the Mexican army defeats invading French troops at the Battle of Puebla French army captured Mexico City and Archduke Maximilian of Austria-Hungary declared the second Emperor of Mexico On June 12 Maximilian and Charlotte enter Mexico City installing the second empire with an Austrian archduke as "emperor" of Mexico.

7 Chronology continued 1867 Restoration of republic After Napoleon III withdraws French troops, Maximilian is captured and executed by a firing squad. The Mexican republic is restored with Benito Juarez as president The Restoration, as the period from 1867 to 1876 is called, was marked by peace and tolerance toward the conservatives. Juárez returned to Mexico City on July 15, 1867, called for presidential elections, and presented himself as a candidate. By the end of the year, he was victorious Mexican revolution Díaz began preparing a joint celebration--the one-hundredth anniversary of Mexican independence and Mexico City went through a full refurbishing In October 1910, Madero drafted the Plan of San Luis Potosí, which called for the people to rise on November 20 to demand the restoration of the democratic principles of the constitution of 1857 and the replacement of Díaz with a provisional government On November 20th Francisco Madero calls for an armed revolt against Diaz and sparks the Mexican Revolution, throwing the country into political upheaval that lasts until 1917.

8 Charts of gov’t structures and images of key leaders
Agustín de Iturbide (27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824) was a Mexican Army General who built a successful political and military coalition that was able to march into Mexico City on 27 September 1821; decisively ending the Mexican War of Independence. After the liberation of Mexico, he was announced as President of the Regency in 1821 and Constitutional Emperor of the new nation, reigning as Emperor briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823. Commonly considered by historians to have been a dictator, he is a controversial figure in Mexican history. The period of his leadership was marked by significant internal stability modernization, and economic growth. However, Diaz's conservative regime grew unpopular due to repression and political continuity, and he fell from power during the Mexican Revolution, after he had imprisoned his electoral rival and declared himself the winner of an eighth term in office. Porfirio Díaz The rule of Emperor Maximiliano was blemished by constant conflict. On his arrival in 1864 with his wife, he found himself in the middle of a political struggle between the Conservatives that backed him and the opposing Liberals, headed by Benito Juárez. The two factions had set up parallel governments; the Conservatives in Mexico City controlling central Mexico and the Liberals in Veracruz. The Conservatives received funding from Europe. The Liberals found backing from United States Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, after they had finished their own Civil War in 1865. Second Mexican Empire

9 Propaganda Fear- When Napoleon arrived in Mexico, he used force and fear to win over his power and his plans over the people. He won this power through battle and force gaining his power through battle. Later he won the people’s support through taking the capital. Hope- When the battles of the Mexican revolution were occurring, it was very violent. All of the violence and uncertainty caused the people to become closer with god.

10 Comparison of the original and the final government structures and effectiveness
Mexican Independence From Spain- before Mexican Independence From Spain- after The original government was a monarchy and only members of the elite benefited from it. The rebellion was started with the help of the closeness people had to the church. The class systems were very strict and unfair, so the lower class people were unhappy. Iturbide became the head of the first, new independent government. They were no longer under the control of Spain and were now independent and free. The class systems got a little better but not by much. There weren’t any similarities, however, the governments before and after Mexican Independence from Spain were different in that after Mexican Independence from Spain, Iturbide became the new leader, and the government was independent.

11 Mexican Revolution- before Mexican Revolution- after
Comparison of the original and the final government structures and effectiveness Mexican Revolution- before Mexican Revolution- after President Porfirio Diaz had been in power for over 30 years, and the people were not happy about this. They wanted to remove him from office because he ruled as if he were a dictator. President Porfirio Diaz also said the next president should be elected democratically but didn’t mean what he said. He threw the opposing candidate in jail and made himself president again. The Mexican Revolution ended successfully. A new constitution was established as well. President Porfirio Diaz was successfully removed from office. Also, no president has been in power for over the given 6 years since the revolution ended. The governments before and after the Mexican Revolution were different in that a new constitution was established ,and a new president was elected. The presidents that were elected after the Mexican Revolution could not serve longer than 6 years. The two governments were similar in that they both had presidents as the leader.

12 Did They Achieve Their Goals?
Goal of Mexican Independence From Spain- The people of Mexico wanted to gain freedom and independence from Spain. Creoles didn’t like how the Spanish controlled the high offices and monopolies. In order to modernize the colony, Spain set up political and economic reforms, which the Creoles also didn’t like. Iturbide became the head of the first independent government. However, great political turmoil for 30 years came with this independence. Goal of Mexican Revolution- The people of Mexico wanted to remove President Porfirio Diaz from his office. He had been in power for over 30 years. The Mexican Revolution ended with the pulling together of a new constitution. President Porfirio Diaz was successfully removed from office. No president has been in power for over the given 6 years since the revolution ended.

13 Analysis of the causes that led to each revolution in the process to reach the final resolution
Mexican independence from Spain The Spanish came to Mexico for one reason: gold. They colonized a little but their main priorities were to find gold and to trade with other locations. After a long period of time, the Mexican's rights had been pushed down and revolted against the Spanish for their freedom. It was initially started by Martin Cortes, who was known as one of the first Matzos. He was the first to revolt against the Spanish colonial government for the injustice against the Spanish born in Mexico 2nd Mexican empire Promoted and installed by the French, with some support from the Austrian and Spanish Crowns, the intervention attempted to re-create a European-style monarchical system in Mexico. When the French arrived in Mexico, they focused more on Europeanizing Mexico because they focused on colonizing Mexico than trade and profit. Restoration of republic Between , Mexico experienced nearly two decades of nonstop warfare Despite the destruction, losses, and debt these conflicts produced, Mexico emerged as a more unified nation and these conflicts also stimulated Mexicans’ desire for a stable government. The restoration of the Mexican Republic in 1867 produced a more stable government and a more unified nation. Mexican revolution The Revolution was characterized by several movements that eventually combined together to form a civil war against the French. These movements developed through the unfairness and bad treatment against the natives of Mexico and the unfair rights that had been established and bad conditions. To reach the resolution, they created a army, established a leader, and went to war with the French until their freedom was in their sights and overcame the French.

14 Credits Slides 2-5 Katherine Lamb (part 2) Slides 6-9 Hannah Heyerdahl (part 3) Slides 9-12 Bernice Lin (Part 4) Slide 13 Hannah Heyerdahl (part 1)

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