Presentation on theme: "Mexico’s Fight for Independence"— Presentation transcript:
1 Mexico’s Fight for Independence New Spain(Modern Day Mexico and Central America) was one of Spain's most profitable Colonies
2 Issues in New Spain early 1800’s Creoles want full equality of the peninsularesMerchants wanted open trade with other nationsCould only trade with spainMeztizo working class- Mines & farming wanted better wagesAngry- at elite land owners controlling food pricesElite would hold onto suplies of food until hit max priceThe Indigenous and Mullatos want end to TributeTax paid to large land owners and the govSmall slave population wants freedom
3 Situation in Spain 1808-1810 Napoleon takes control of Spain Creole elites take this opportunity to fight for independenceThey fear Napoleons liberal government will take their rightsThey “claimed” to fight for King Ferdinand VII
4 Initial uprisingCentered in Queretaro Group of middle and upper-class creoles planned a revoltneeded support of masses so sympathized with demands of the Indigenous and mestizo.Father Miguel Hidalgo(creole) had influence to recruit the massesSpanish Authorities began to arrest rebel conspiritors
5 Father Miguel Hidalgos Revolt Grito de Dolores- Sept 16th 1810 Hidalgo gathered his parishioners declared New Spain free from the Spanish CrownThe mod went on to take control of the cityBy Sept 28 took key city of GuanajuatoKilled many SpaniardsAttacked may business( most owned by Creoles)Opened to Grainstorage for the poor
6 Fear in Hidalgo’s Revolution Hidalgo’s army fought for the right of the poorCreole elites wanted freedom not a class and race revolutionHidalgo’s goalsIndependence from SpainEnd of SlaveryEnd of tributeMore equality for all social classesNo forced laborBetter wagesThese changes would take power from Creole elites
7 Hidalgo’s Peasant Army His soldiers began to take vengeance on both Spaniards and Creole elitesHis forces were unable to take Mexico City and were driven northBy Summer of 1811 Hidalgo and his leaders were captured and executed
9 Jose Maria MorelosMorelos was a Priest who continued the fight of HidalgomestizoHis forces centered south of Mexico CityHis goals were the same as Hidalgos-Independence from Spain, End of Slavery, End of tribute, equality for all social classes, No forced labor, Better wagesHe worked to gain more support of some Creole Elites( some views were too radicalHis forces were centered in the state of OaxacaHis use of Guerrilla tactics were very effective
10 National Congress of Chilpancingo1813 Created a Congress inviting many creole revolutionariesSet himself as chief executiveCreated a Judicial and Legislative BranchEnacted many of the social changes he plannedCongress only had control of southern territories he controlledCongress did not have a stable home
11 The Down Fall of Morelos Lost battles to royalist forces using traditional war methodsSome of his changes too radical to gain full Creole support-Many fought against himKing Ferdinand VII regains power in Spain-More Spanish troops are sent to stop Rebellion in New SpainIn 1815 Morelos is captured, put on trial, and executed 12/22
12 1815-1820 Guerrilla fighting continued fighting against Royalists continued with no central OrganizationVicente Guerrero Continued a Guerrilla campaign against Royalist forces in Oaxaca(Southern Mexico)Mix Creole, Indigenous, BlackThe Cost of fighting, high taxes, and mistreatment of Creoles by Spain began to anger the elites
13 Creole Elites Take Control of the Revolution 1820 Spanish King Ferdinand VII was deposed(temporily)New Spanish Gov enacted liberal ConstitutionThis would take some rights from the Creole eliteAugustine Iturbide-Royalist CreoleFeared losing power and used this as an excuse to rebelSwitched sidesto joinRevolutionary(Ironic- joined rebels tokeep creole elite control)
14 Opposites Combine Iturbide asked Guerrero to join in support Guerrero(Liberal)Iturbide(Conservative)Independence from SpainCatholic ChurchRepresentative RepublicLiberal social reforms of HidalgoIndependence from SpainCatholic ChurchMonarchyEquality of peninsulares and creoles
15 Mexico is FreeAug 24, 1821 Treaty of Cordoba Signed- The Mexican Empire was declared independentThe combined forces enter Mexico City Minimal resistanceIturbide is crowned EmperorShort lived He steps down from powerA Republican government is formedName Mexico comes from the name of the Aztecs MEXICA.
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