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Republic of South Sudan The Road to Independence.

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1 Republic of South Sudan The Road to Independence

2 A chronology of key events A chronology of key events South Sudan is part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, under joint British-Egyptian rule Sudan gains independence from joint British-Egyptian rule

3 Sudan Sudan As Sudan prepared to gain independence from joint British and Egyptian rule in 1956 As Sudan prepared to gain independence from joint British and Egyptian rule in 1956

4 Immediately Immediately southern leaders accused the new authorities in Khartoum of backing out of promises to create a federal system, and of trying to impose an Islamic and Arabic identity southern leaders accused the new authorities in Khartoum of backing out of promises to create a federal system, and of trying to impose an Islamic and Arabic identity

5 First civil war First civil war In 1955, southern army officers mutinied, sparking off a civil war between the south, led by Joseph Logo the Anya Nya guerrilla movement, and the Sudanese government In 1955, southern army officers mutinied, sparking off a civil war between the south, led by Joseph Logo the Anya Nya guerrilla movement, and the Sudanese government

6 Group of socialist and communist Sudanese military officers led by Col Jaafar Muhammad Numeiri seizes power; Col Numeiri outlines policy of autonomy for south Group of socialist and communist Sudanese military officers led by Col Jaafar Muhammad Numeiri seizes power; Col Numeiri outlines policy of autonomy for south Government of Sudanese President Jaafar Numeiri concedes a measure of autonomy for southern Sudan in a peace agreement signed in Addis Ababa Government of Sudanese President Jaafar Numeiri concedes a measure of autonomy for southern Sudan in a peace agreement signed in Addis Ababa Oil discovered in Unity State in southern Sudan Oil discovered in Unity State in southern Sudan

7 The conflict only ended when the Addis Ababa peace agreement of 1972 accorded the south a measure of autonomy. But, in 1983, the south, led by the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and its armed wing, the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), again rose in rebellion when the Sudanese government cancelled the autonomy arrangements

8 The Conflict in Sudan The Conflict in Sudan At least 1.5 million people are thought to have lost their lives and more than four million were displaced in the ensuing 22 years of guerrilla warfare. Large numbers of South Sudanese fled the fighting, either to the north or to neighbouring countries, where many remain. At least 1.5 million people are thought to have lost their lives and more than four million were displaced in the ensuing 22 years of guerrilla warfare. Large numbers of South Sudanese fled the fighting, either to the north or to neighbouring countries, where many remain. The conflict finally ended with the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, under which the south was granted regional autonomy along with guaranteed representation in a national power-sharing government. The conflict finally ended with the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, under which the south was granted regional autonomy along with guaranteed representation in a national power-sharing government.

9 Second civil war Fighting breaks out again between north and south Sudan, under leadership of John Garang's Sudanese People's Liberation Movement (SPLM), after Sudanese President Jaafar Numeiri abolishes South Sudan's autonomy Fighting breaks out again between north and south Sudan, under leadership of John Garang's Sudanese People's Liberation Movement (SPLM), after Sudanese President Jaafar Numeiri abolishes South Sudan's autonomy Democratic Unionist Party - part of Sudan's ruling coalition government - drafts cease-fire agreement with the SPLM, but it is not implemented Democratic Unionist Party - part of Sudan's ruling coalition government - drafts cease-fire agreement with the SPLM, but it is not implemented Military seizes power in Sudan Military seizes power in Sudan

10 And in 1997 Dr Riek machar

11 Those Who Participate In SPLA/M

12 Sudanese Islamist leader Hassan Al-Turabi's party, the Popular National Congress, signs memorandum of understanding with the southern rebel SPLM's armed wing, the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA). Mr Al- Turabi is arrested the next day Sudanese Islamist leader Hassan Al-Turabi's party, the Popular National Congress, signs memorandum of understanding with the southern rebel SPLM's armed wing, the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA). Mr Al- Turabi is arrested the next day.

13 SPLA and Sudanese sign agreement on six-month renewable cease-fire in central Nuba Mountains - a key rebel stronghold SPLA and Sudanese sign agreement on six-month renewable cease-fire in central Nuba Mountains - a key rebel stronghold. Talks in Kenya lead to a breakthrough agreement between southern rebels and Sudanese government on ending the civil war. The Machakos Protocol provides for the south to seek self-determination after six years Talks in Kenya lead to a breakthrough agreement between southern rebels and Sudanese government on ending the civil war. The Machakos Protocol provides for the south to seek self-determination after six years

14 North-south peace deal 2005 January - North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) ends civil war; deal provides for a permanent ceasefire, autonomy for the south, a power-sharing government involving rebels in Khartoum and a south Sudanese referendum on independence in six years' time January - North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) ends civil war; deal provides for a permanent ceasefire, autonomy for the south, a power-sharing government involving rebels in Khartoum and a south Sudanese referendum on independence in six years' time July - Former southern rebel leader John Garang is sworn in as first vice-president. A new Sudanese constitution which gives the south a large degree of autonomy is signed 2005 July - Former southern rebel leader John Garang is sworn in as first vice-president. A new Sudanese constitution which gives the south a large degree of autonomy is signed

15 Tension over Abyei Tension over Abyei 2008 May - Intense fighting breaks out between northern and southern forces in disputed oil-rich town of Abyei May - Intense fighting breaks out between northern and southern forces in disputed oil-rich town of Abyei June - Southern Sudanese leader Salva Kiir and Sudanese President Omar Bashir agree to seek international arbitration to resolve dispute over Abyei June - Southern Sudanese leader Salva Kiir and Sudanese President Omar Bashir agree to seek international arbitration to resolve dispute over Abyei July - North and south Sudan say they accept ruling by arbitration court in The Hague shrinking disputed Abyei region 2009 July - North and south Sudan say they accept ruling by arbitration court in The Hague shrinking disputed Abyei region

16 2009 December - Leaders of North and South reach deal on terms of referendum on independence due in South by December - Leaders of North and South reach deal on terms of referendum on independence due in South by January - President Omar Bashir says he will accept referendum result, even if South opted for independence January - President Omar Bashir says he will accept referendum result, even if South opted for independence January - The people of South Sudan vote in favour of full independence from Sudan January - The people of South Sudan vote in favour of full independence from Sudan..

17 Southern Sudanese celebrate the formal announcement of independence referendum results in the southern capital of Juba Southern Sudanese celebrate the formal announcement of independence referendum results in the southern capital of Juba

18 Again Sudan Again Sudan 2011 May - North occupies disputed border region of Abyei May - North occupies disputed border region of Abyei June - Governments of north and south Sudan sign accord to demilitarize the disputed Abyei region and let in an Ethiopian peacekeeping force 2011 June - Governments of north and south Sudan sign accord to demilitarize the disputed Abyei region and let in an Ethiopian peacekeeping force

19 South Sudanese boys hold candles as the clock ticks over to midnight on July 9, 2011 to mark the day that South Sudan will officially declare independence from the north in Juba,

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21 Ambassador Susan E. Rice &UN chief Banki Moon Arrived In Juba

22 the IRC's Sophia Jones-Mwangi and Pasquale Ongwen joined a vast crowd the IRC's Sophia Jones-Mwangi and Pasquale Ongwen joined a vast crowd

23 man waves South Sudan's national flag man waves South Sudan's national flag

24 Thousands celebrate the country's independence during a ceremony in the capital Juba on July 9, 2011.

25 Yambio Yambio

26 South Sudan President Salva Kiir lifts South Sudan's new constitution above the crowds South Sudan President Salva Kiir lifts South Sudan's new constitution above the crowds

27 A man dances with fireworks during independence day celebrations A man dances with fireworks during independence day celebrations

28 celebrating South Sudan's independence day celebrating South Sudan's independence day

29 After Independent After Independent 14 July 2011 – The General Assembly admitted the Republic of South Sudan as the 193rd member of the United Nations, welcoming the newly independent country to the community of nations. 14 July 2011 – The General Assembly admitted the Republic of South Sudan as the 193rd member of the United Nations, welcoming the newly independent country to the community of nations.

30 And joined the African Union on 28 July 2011

31 We are free and last We are free and last

32 Next time Next time Population: Capital: Area: Major language Major religions: Monetary unit: Main exports EconomicGeography International dialling code

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