Presentation on theme: "THE GULF WAR 1. Saddam Hussein invasion of Kuwait 2.The US views on the Gulf War 3.The « Desert Storm » operation 4.Outcome of the war."— Presentation transcript:
THE GULF WAR 1. Saddam Hussein invasion of Kuwait 2.The US views on the Gulf War 3.The « Desert Storm » operation 4.Outcome of the war
Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait WHO ? BACKGROUND Saddam Hussein became president in Policy: Totalitarian regime, GNP devoted to the expansion of military forces, investiment in nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. In the 80s: Hostilities with Iran led to the Iran/Iraq War until Consequences on Iraq after the war: Iraqi army became a dominant force in the Middle East. But, Desastrous repercussions on the country’s economy. In the beginning of 1990, Saddam Hussein needed to find a solution to restore the economy of Iraq.
WHY did Iraq invade Kuwait? Economical debt : S. Hussein was seriously indebted: Several Arab nations including Kuwait had lent him money to finance the war against Iran. They were waiting for getting a refund. Moreover the programm to reconstruct the country after the war cost a lot. He was unable to repay the money borrowed : asked Kuwait to forgive the $14 billion debt arguing that the war against Iran had prevented the rise of Iran Islamic fundamentalism over Kuwait and other Arab nations. Kuwait refused and wanted its money back. Row about oil : On prices: Petroleum was the Iraq and Kuwait major source of revenue. Solution to repay the debt and recover the economy : Raising the prices of oil through the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries). Kuwait reaction to prevent a global increase in petroleum prices :produced more oil, thereby depressing the price of oil. From $20 a barrel to $13 a barrel. Every $1 drop caused a $1 billion drop in Iraq annual revenue. The collapse had a catastrophic impact on Iraq’s economy and Saddam Hussein saw the Kuwaiti reaction as an aggression act.
About the Rumaila oil field: A field located in Iraq and crossing the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border. Iraq accused Kuwait of pumping oil from the field and stealing billions barrels of oil by sliding drills into Iraqi pipelines. Iraq wanted Kuwait to share the revenue and requested $1 billion in compensation. Nationalism and geographical matters Kuwait had been part of the Ottoman Empire, until 1899, when Britain split Kuwait and Iraq into 2 separated countries. Consequences: Deprived Iraq of easy access to the sea. In 1961, Britain granted Kuwait independance. Iraq claimed that Kuwait was a part of the Iraqi territory. Under pressure, Iraq recognized Kuwait in But never accepted Kuwait separation. Never clearly defined or mutually agreed on borders. Occasional clashes along the borders.
The invasion : WHEN and HOW July 1990: Saddam Hussein speeches had turned aggressive. He secretely transferred 2 Iraqi infantries totalling 30,000 men to the border with Kuwait. July 27, 1990: OPEC agreed on oil price increase ($21 per barrel) Talks between Iraq and Kuwait were abruptly broken off on August 1st. August 2nd: Saddam Hussein launched the invasion. About 150,000 Iraqi troops entered the Kuwaiti territory. Kuwait taken by surprised and not prepared at all. No forces on alert. Only 20,000 Kuwaitis soldiers with no training. Kuwait air forces: fought over Kuwait City and inflicted heavy losses to Iraq troops. Kuwait navy: 2 missile boats managed to evade capture. Ground forces: have tried to resist but were vastly outnumbered. Iraq tanks attacked Dasman Palace, the royal residence but the Emir Al-Sabah had already fled into Saudi Arabia. On August 8, they took control of the whole country and Saddam Hussein annouced the unification of Kuwait to Iraq.