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1970s to 1991. OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries A cartel of nations that tries to control oil supply and production and thus controls.

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Presentation on theme: "1970s to 1991. OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries A cartel of nations that tries to control oil supply and production and thus controls."— Presentation transcript:

1 1970s to 1991

2 OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries A cartel of nations that tries to control oil supply and production and thus controls oil prices Member Countries- Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Venezuela, and Indonesia

3 1973 Embargo During the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Arab members of OPEC used oil as a “political weapon,” refusing to sell oil to countries that were friendly to Israel

4 Impact on the United States Price of oil rose leading to high unemployment and high inflation (stagflation) Long lines at the gas pump Rationing of oil

5 Islamic Fundamentalism An attempt to return to the basic “fundamental” beliefs and values of Islam

6 Shah Reza Pahlavi vs. Ayatollah Khomeini Pahlavi was the leader of Iran and tried to adopt elements of Western culture and technology Khomeini took power after the Shah was overthrown Religious leaders took control of country and broke ties with the West

7 Hostages To punish the West and the United States students took Americans hostage from the US Embassy for 444 days

8 Rescue President Carter authorized a rescue mission but it failed when helicopters had mechanical problems

9 Release Hostages were released hours after President Reagan was sworn into office in January 1981 A final insult to President Carter

10 Issues Differences in religious philosophy Iran mostly Shi’a/ Iraq (Saddam Sunni minority) Arguments over border changing due to river flooding

11 War Iraq attacks Iran in 1980

12 Support USA supports Iraq (an enemy of Iran) Offers naval protection to Kuwaiti oil tankers leaving the Persian Gulf

13 Winners Cease fire in the war was a draw Losers Both sides suffer great loses (millions of people)

14 Cause Iraq claims historical rights to Kuwait Accuses Kuwait of stealing oil (slant drilling) Iraq invades Kuwait- controls 20% of worlds oil

15 Response USA condemns attack as “naked aggression” Operation Desert Shield- coalition of 26 nations built up troops to protect Saudi Arabia Operation Desert Storm- UN sanctioned attack on Iraq by coalition 6 weeks of air bombings and 100 hours of ground war

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18 Result Iraq leaves Kuwait On the retreat they set fire to hundreds of oil wells (eco-terrorism)

19 Consequences Saddam Hussein remained in power Continued to disrupt activities in the region Economic sanctions kept Iraqi oil off the market US War on Terrorism led US/Iraq to war in 2003

20 Geography Mountainous and desert terrain Most inhabitants are farmers and herders

21 Russia and Britain have fought for territory throughout Afghanistan’s history 1919 declared an independent nation (Monarchy)

22 1973 Communism is overthrown Provoked Soviet Union to invade in 1979 US supported Afghan rebels Soviets eventually left after 10 years

23 Opposition forces (Holy Warriors) tried to end communism They felt it conflicted with the practice of Islam

24 Conservative Islamic group came to power after Soviets left Created a repressive society Allowed terrorists to train inside Afghanistan

25 Terrorist leader of al-Qaeda Responsible for several acts of terrorism September 11 th, 2001

26 Must rebuild after war with the United States and removal of the Taliban from power Attempting to become democratic Unify several ethnic groups as one country


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