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Chapter 7 Road to the Alamo: 1836 Lone Star: The Story of Texas Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Road to the Alamo: 1836 Lone Star: The Story of Texas Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Road to the Alamo: 1836 Lone Star: The Story of Texas Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

2 Lone Star: The Story of Texas Section 1: The Beginnings of Revolution Section 2: The Revolutionary Spirit Grows Section 3: The Fall of the Alamo Section 4: A Troubled Time for Texas Chapter 7: Road to the Alamo: 1836 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

3 The Beginnings of Revolution In what ways were the Texas Revolution and the American Revolution alike? Why is the Battle of Gonzales known as the “Lexington” of the Texas Revolution? Chapter 7, Section 1

4 The colonists began to develop the colonies largely on their own. Great Britain originally left the colonists alone. Great Britain feared losing control over the colonies and cracked down. The goals of the colonists changed over time. King George III denied the colonists their rights. The settlers began to develop Texas largely on their own. Mexico originally left the settlers alone. Mexico feared losing control over Texas and cracked down. The goals of the settlers changed over time. Santa Anna denied the settlers their rights. American Revolution Texas Revolution Chapter 7, Section 1 The Texas Revolution and the American Revolution

5 The Battle of Gonzales Mexican leaders in San Antonio lent a small cannon to the Texans in nearby Gonzales. The cannon was to be used to fight Comanches. After an Anglo uprising at Anahuac, Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea decided to reclaim the cannon. He did not want it to be used against the Mexicans. The alcalde of Gonzales, Andrew Ponton, hid the cannon. His men captured the Mexicans sent to retrieve it. In response, Ugartechea sent 100 troops to Gonzales. He ordered them to avoid a fight, if possible. Alcalde - a Mexican official, much like a mayor Chapter 7, Section 1

6 The Battle of Gonzales and the Old Eighteen Eighteen armed Texans held off the Mexican troops sent to retrieve the cannon from Gonzales. They were known as the “Old Eighteen.” The following day, more Texans arrived to assist them, including Jim Bowie and William Travis. The Texans dug up the cannon and dared the Mexicans to come and take it. They used the cannon to attack the Mexican troops in several small skirmishes. The Mexicans retreated. The Battle of Gonzales is known as the “Lexington” of the Texas Revolution. Just as the Battle of Lexington was the first battle of the American Revolution, the Battle of Gonzales was the initial battle of the Texas Revolution. Chapter 7, Section 1

7 The Beginnings of Revolution - Assessment How was the Texas Revolution similar to the American Revolution? (A) Texas and British colonists had the same culture as the rulers they fought against. (B) Texas and British colonists both wanted more self-government. (C) Texas and British colonists fought for the same rights as citizens of the countries that governed them. (D) Both revolutions took six years for the patriots to win. The Battle of Gonzales is called the _________ of the Texas Revolution? (A) Waterloo (B) Alamo (C) Alcalde (D) Lexington Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 7, Section 1

8 The Beginnings of Revolution - Assessment How was the Texas Revolution similar to the American Revolution? (A) Texas and British colonists had the same culture as the rulers they fought against. (B) Texas and British colonists both wanted more self-government. (C) Texas and British colonists fought for the same rights as citizens of the countries that governed them. (D) Both revolutions took six years for the patriots to win. The Battle of Gonzales is called the _________ of the Texas Revolution? (A) Waterloo (B) Alamo (C) Alcalde (D) Lexington Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 7, Section 1

9 The Revolutionary Spirit Grows What made Presidio La Bahía an important fort? What was the first state government in Texas? Why did Texans lay siege to San Antonio? Why was the Texan capture of San Antonio important? Chapter 7, Section 2

10 The Capture of Goliad Mexican General Cós left his army’s supplies at Presidio La Bahía at Goliad while he gathered more troops. Texan colonists, led by George W. Collinsworth, marched on Goliad. In a 30-minute battle, 120 Texans took over Presidio La Bahía. Samuel McCulloch, a free African American, became the first Texan casualty of the Texas Revolution. Gaining control of Presidio La Bahía at Goliad was the key to controlling South Texas: Chapter 7, Section 2

11 Establishing a Government The Permanent Council In 1835, Texas delegates met in San Felipe to discuss the future of Texas. The first delegates to arrive created Texas’s first state government, the Permanent Council. The Permanent Council set up a postal system and sent soldiers and supplies to the army in South Texas. The Permanent Council disbanded when the Consultation began. The Consultation was a meeting of delegates from across Texas. They met to discuss the future of Texas. Not all Anglo Texans supported the revolution. Instead they wanted reforms in the Mexican system. The Consultation had a challenging job ahead. Chapter 7, Section 2

12 The Consultation’s Work Delegates disagreed about the purpose of the war. They had to come up with a compromise (an agreement in which each side gives up some of what it wants). They did not declare independence. Instead, they announced that Texans were fighting for the Constitution of They wanted Mexico to return to a federal system. The Consultation set up a temporary government for Texas called the Provisional Government. The Consultation decided to raise a regular army, a force of full-time soldiers who serve for a set period of time. Sam Houston was put in charge. The army was made of cavalry (soldiers on horseback) and infantry (foot soldiers). Chapter 7, Section 2

13 The Siege of San Antonio General Cós sent 400 soldiers to protect the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, also known as the Alamo. Stephen F. Austin led the Texas army in a siege of San Antonio. In a siege, an army surrounds a town or fort and waits for the enemy to give up. After weeks of waiting, the Consultation sent Austin to the United States for help. Groups of well-equipped volunteers arrived from several southern states. Texas soldiers defeated Mexican troops heading for San Antonio. The Mexican troops had gathered grass for their starving horses. Texans call this battle “The Grass Fight.” Chapter 7, Section 2

14 The Capture of San Antonio After three months, the Texans decided to give up the siege. But a Mexican escaping from the Alamo told them that the Mexican army’s morale was low and that they could easily seize San Antonio. Ben Milam led the Texans in an attack on December 5. On December 10, General Cós surrendered the town, the Alamo, and his army. The troops were set free when Cós pledged they would never return to Texas. The Texan army had beaten a force three times its size. No Mexican soldiers remained north of the Rio Grande. Chapter 7, Section 2

15 The Revolutionary Spirit Grows - Assessment Why did the Texas delegates need a compromise? (A) They disagreed over how to raise an army. (B) Some favored freedom from Mexico. Others wanted Texas to remain part of Mexico. (C) They disagreed over what system of government Texas should have. (D) Some wanted a governor to be in charge of Texas. Others wanted the military to be in charge. What happens in a siege? (A) An army surrounds a town or fort and waits for the enemy to give up. (B) An army attacks a town or fort and takes control. (C) Cavalry and infantry work together to attack a target. (D) The navy and army coordinate an attack. Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 7, Section 2

16 The Revolutionary Spirit Grows - Assessment Why did the Texas delegates need a compromise? (A) They disagreed over how to raise an army. (B) Some favored freedom from Mexico. Others wanted Texas to remain part of Mexico. (C) They disagreed over what system of government Texas should have. (D) Some wanted a governor to be in charge of Texas. Others wanted the military to be in charge. What happens in a siege? (A) An army surrounds a town or fort and waits for the enemy to give up. (B) An army attacks a town or fort and takes control. (C) Cavalry and infantry work together to attack a target. (D) The navy and army coordinate an attack. Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 7, Section 2

17 The Fall of the Alamo What caused the Provisional Government to fall apart? Who led the forces that defended the Alamo? What happened during the siege of the Alamo? How did the fall of the Alamo help the Texas Revolution? Chapter 7, Section 3

18 Areas Controlled by Mexico and Texas, January 1836 Chapter 7, Section 3

19 Problems in Texas Government The Government Falls Apart James Grant wanted the Texans to attack Matamoros. Governor Smith and General Houston rejected the plan. However, members of the General Council gave it the go- ahead. Governor Smith tried and failed to take control of the army away from the council. In anger, he disbanded the council. In return, the council ordered Smith removed as governor. Smith refused to leave; the government fell apart. Disorganized Armies The government’s problems split the army into four factions. Smith wanted the three other leaders to report to Houston. They wanted Houston to turn against Smith and side with the council. Chapter 7, Section 3

20 The Alamo and Its Defenders The Alamo’s commander, J. C. Neill, asked General Houston for reinforcements. Reinforcements are extra soldiers sent to a place to make the force there stronger. Houston sent Jim Bowie to assess the situation at the Alamo. Bowie would decide whether the Texans should defend the fort or destroy it. Neill believed the Alamo was a key fort. He convinced Bowie to defend it. Governor Smith sent a small force led by William Travis. David Crockett, a former congressman from Tennessee, arrived with a dozen riflemen. There were about 150 men to defend the Alamo. Chapter 7, Section 3

21 The Siege of the Alamo Santa Anna demanded the troops defending the Alamo surrender. Travis refused. For 12 days, Santa Anna’s forces fired cannons at the Alamo. Travis sent a request for help. He had fewer than 200 men to cover the entire fort. When it became clear that help would not arrive, Travis allowed each man to choose whether or not to leave the Alamo. Only one man chose to leave. Chapter 7, Section 3

22 The Fall of the Alamo A total of 1,800 Mexican soldiers marched toward the Alamo, carrying bayonets (long blades attached to the end of rifles) and ladders. The defenders drove the Mexicans back two times, even though they were low on ammunition. On the third attack, Mexican soldiers scrambled over the wall and into the fort. The defenders took cover in the barracks (the buildings in which soldiers live) and the chapel. Santa Anna stormed the buildings and took control of the fort. The Mexicans executed all surviving defenders of the Alamo. Chapter 7, Section 3

23 The Importance of the Alamo Santa Anna spared the lives of the wives and children of the defenders. He let them go free to spread the word of what would happen to anyone who stood in his way. He hoped that the defeat of the Alamo would frighten the rebels so badly that they would leave Texas. But what happened at the Alamo made Texans even more determined to have their own country. “Remember the Alamo” became the rally cry of the Texas Revolution. Chapter 7, Section 3

24 The Fall of the Alamo - Assessment What are reinforcements? (A) Soldiers who fight for money (B) Government officials who suggest when a compromise is needed (C) Soldiers’ wives and children who are allowed to live in a fort (D) Extra soldiers sent to a place to make the force there stronger How did the fall of the Alamo help the Texas Revolution? (A) It made Texans more determined to be independent. (B) It kept Mexican soldiers busy so the rebels could capture other forts. (C) It weakened the Mexican forces. (D) It taught Texas soldiers about Mexican war strategies. Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 7, Section 3

25 The Fall of the Alamo - Assessment What are reinforcements? (A) Soldiers who fight for money (B) Government officials who suggest when a compromise is needed (C) Soldiers’ wives and children who are allowed to live in a fort (D) Extra soldiers sent to a place to make the force there stronger How did the fall of the Alamo help the Texas Revolution? (A) It made Texans more determined to be independent. (B) It kept Mexican soldiers busy so the rebels could capture other forts. (C) It weakened the Mexican forces. (D) It taught Texas soldiers about Mexican war strategies. Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 7, Section 3

26 A Troubled Time for Texas What was the condition of Sam Houston’s army after the Alamo? Why did Texas rush to join Sam Houston’s army after the Alamo? What was the significance of the Goliad Massacre? Why did Texans flee in the Runaway Scrape? Chapter 7, Section 4

27 After the Alamo Houston had fewer than 400 volunteers in Gonzales. When he heard Santa Anna was approaching, he ordered a tactical retreat. A tactical retreat is an organized pullback of troops in order to gain an advantage. Houston instructed Fannin to destroy Presidio La Bahía at Goliad and join him. Houston destroyed the town of Gonzales so it would be of no use to Santa Anna. The townspeople left with Houston. Houston and his men marched northeast, gathering volunteers as they traveled. Fannin sent word that he would not help Houston. Chapter 7, Section 4

28 The Goliad Massacre Texans Francis Johnson, James Grant, and Colonel James Fannin were defeated at San Patricio, Refugio, and Coleto Creek by Mexican General Urrea. Under the terms of surrender, the Texans were to be expelled from Texas. Instead, Mexican soldiers opened fire on the prisoners. They massacred more than 300 men. The “Angel of Goliad,” Francita Alavez, helped many men escape and hide. Texans considered this massacre an atrocity, a cruel and brutal act. People in the United States were furious at the cruelty. Many of them pledged their support for the Texas Revolution. Chapter 7, Section 4

29 The Runaway Scrape News of Houston’s retreat and the Goliad Massacre turned Texans’ fear of Santa Anna into panic. They fled the approach of his army. This mass movement of people was known as the “Runaway Scrape.” Chapter 7, Section 4

30 A Troubled Time for Texans - Assessment How did the Goliad Massacre hurt the Mexican army? (A) More than 300 Mexican soldiers were killed. (B) The Texans responded by massacring many Mexican soldiers. (C) It inspired the United States to help and support the Texans. (D) Mexican soldiers quit the army when they heard of the atrocity. What happened during the Runaway Scrape? (A) Texan soldiers who tried to desert were punished. (B) Mexicans left Texas in large numbers. (C) Mexican soldiers deserted and joined the Texas troops. (D) Texans fled from their homes out of fear of Santa Anna’s army. Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 7, Section 4

31 A Troubled Time for Texans - Assessment How did the Goliad Massacre hurt the Mexican army? (A) More than 300 Mexican soldiers were killed. (B) The Texans responded by massacring many Mexican soldiers. (C) It inspired the United States to help and support the Texans. (D) Mexican soldiers quit the army when they heard of the atrocity. What happened during the Runaway Scrape? (A) Texan soldiers who tried to desert were punished. (B) Mexicans left Texas in large numbers. (C) Mexican soldiers deserted and joined the Texas troops. (D) Texans fled from their homes out of fear of Santa Anna’s army. Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!Click here! Chapter 7, Section 4


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