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Independence in Latin America

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1 Independence in Latin America
Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Early Struggles in Latin America Independence in Mexico Map: Independence in Latin America Revolutionary Leaders in South America Faces of History: Two Revolutionary Leaders Quick Facts: Causes and Effects of Revolution in Latin America

2 Independence in Latin America
Main Idea Revolutionary ideas took hold in Latin America as colonies fought for independence from Europe. Reading Focus How did early struggles in Latin America affect Haiti and other colonies? What events led to independence in Mexico? Who were the key revolutionary leaders in South America, and what did they achieve?

3 Early Struggles in Latin America
The Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions inspired some in Latin America to seek greater freedom. Saint Domingue, western half of Caribbean island Hispaniola, first Latin American territory to break ties with Europe Sugar exports made Saint Domingue one of France’s richest possessions Prosperity built on slave labor French Revolution had dramatic effect on island Haiti Becomes Independent Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen gave vote to all free men, including mulattoes French settlers on Saint Domingue resisted new law Toussaint L’Ouverture led bloody revolt against settlers Toussaint’s military, political actions made him hero in Hispaniola Toussaint L’Ouverture

4 Napoleon Concerned French emperor Napoleon worried about revolt in Hispaniola Sent French general to take control of colony away from Toussaint Island forces struggled for months 1802, Toussaint agreed to armistice French broke agreement, sent him to prison; Toussaint died there, 1803 Fight for independence continued 1804, revolutionaries declared independence Named new nation Haiti

5 Colonies of Spain and Portugal
Another Kind of Independence 1800s, Spain controlled most of Latin America; Portugal governed Brazil In the 1700s Spanish kings had made improvements in colonies, building roads, regulating trade; colonies grew in wealth and prosperity Education and New Ideas Wealth gave some in Latin America access to education, new ideas Educated colonists read works of Enlightenment philosophers, learned about revolutions in France, America Tensions Growing Tensions grew in Latin America between creoles, people of European descent born in colonies, and peninsulares, colonists born in Spain Similar distinction between Brazilian-born, Portuguese-born colonists

6 Creoles vs. Peninsulares
Growing Tensions Creoles, peninsulares made up highest social class People of mixed race, Africans, Indians lower on social scale Creoles excluded from highest levels of government, church As prosperity grew, creoles resented peninsulares, faraway Spanish rulers Creoles vs. Peninsulares 1807, French emperor Napoleon invaded Spain, Portugal Spanish king imprisoned, Portuguese king fled to Brazil Invasion weakened Spanish, Portuguese power in Latin America Creole revolutionaries decided time right for fight for independence Napoleon

7 How did Haiti win independence from France?
Sequence How did Haiti win independence from France? Answer(s): A rebellion of slaves and mulattoes became a revolution against France after Napoleon tried to take power from the revolutionary leader Toussaint L'Ouverture.

8 Independence in Mexico
Napoleon’s conquest of Spain was the spark for independence in the colony of New Spain, as Mexico was known at the time. Mexico was a Spanish colony with a mixture of creoles, peninsulares, Indians, and people of mixed race. 1810, creole priest, Father Miguel Hidalgo, made first public call for Mexican independence Had history of challenging authority, eventually met creoles who wanted to take power from peninsulares, helped plan rebellion Father Hidalgo September 16, 1810, Hidalgo delivered famous speech calling for fight against Spanish peninsulares, though not against Spain Spanish authorities realized Hidalgo behind growing revolution; captured, executed him Call to Revolt Hidalgo would later become known as the Father of Mexican Independence.

9 Morelos Continues the Revolution
After death of Hidalgo, another creole priest, Jose Maria Morelos, became leader of revolutionary movement Organized Mexican congress, representatives from many places Wanted all people born in Mexico, whether Indian, mixed or creole, to be called Americans Independent Republic Morelos wanted Mexico to be an independent republic with guaranteed freedoms Strong military leader, took control of parts of Mexico for independence movement Captured, found guilty of treason, executed by Spanish authorities

10 A Creole King for Mexico
Iturbide to Lead Fight Not all creoles wanted independence from Spain; some were royalists 1820, Agustin de Iturbide asked to lead final battle against revolutionaries Spanish authorities believed he could end Mexican independence movement Switching Sides Iturbide believed liberal revolution underway in Spain might take away some of his power; decided to switch sides, fight for Mexican revolutionaries Made three-part proposal to leader of revolution Iturbide’s Proposal Mexico would gain independence but be ruled by monarch Creoles and peninsulares would have equal rights Roman Catholic Church would be official church of Mexico

11 Different Proposal Independence
Iturbide’s independence proposal different from ideas of Hidalgo, Morelos After ten years of fighting, the compromise brought together many different groups; creoles and peninsulares, revolutionaries and royalists Independence Unified under plan, royalists and rebel troops joined Iturbide to win independence In 1821, Mexico declared independence from Spain That same year Mexico named Iturbide as its emperor and he became Emperor Agustin I of Mexico




15 Compare and Contrast How were the goals of Hidalgo, Morelos, and Iturbide different, and how were they similar? Answer(s): Hidalgo wanted the peasants to revolt against the peninsulares, not against Spain; Morelos wanted independence from Spain and an "American" identity to unify all people born in Mexico; Iturbide wanted to create an independent monarchy, give creoles and peninsulares equal rights, make the Roman Catholic Church the official church of Mexico

16 Revolutionary Leaders in South America
Inspiration Revolutions in Haiti, Mexico, America, France inspired leaders in South America Independence movements began to form, leaders emerged Simon Bolivar Simon Bolivar, most influential leader in South American independence movement Known as “the Liberator” Venezuelan Roots Bolivar born into wealthy creole family, often traveled to Europe Admired Napoleon’s leadership; in Rome, pledged to liberate South America Independence 1811, Venezuela declared independence from Spain Bolivar led military campaigns against Spanish for 10 years, defeated Spanish 1821

17 Bolivar’s Dream Bolivar had dream for newly independent South America
Wanted to form one large, united country called Federation of the Andes Dream never became reality Bolivar set up state of Gran Colombia, included what are now Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador Other leaders set up separate countries in Peru, Bolivia, other places Bolivar complained “America is ungovernable”


19 José de San Martin Chile Gran Colombia
José de San Martin fought for independence from Spain in south San Martin had fought against Napoleon in Spain Born in Argentina, returned home when he learned country rising up against Spanish rule; eventually led independence movement in Argentina and most of southern South America 1816, San Martin declared independence for Argentina, moved on to Chile Led troops over 15,000 foot summit in Andes Surprised Spanish troops, won independence for Chile Chile After Chile, San Martin moved to Gran Colombia, met Simon Bolivar Historians do not know what they discussed when they met San Martin resigned position after meeting, returned to Europe Left Bolivar in power Gran Colombia

20 Pedro I John VI in Brazil Son Pedro in Charge
The story of independence was a bit different in the Portuguese colony of Brazil. 1807, Portuguese king John VI, family, fled to Brazil when Napoleon invaded Portugal Status of colony raised having Portuguese monarch there John VI named Rio de Janeiro capital of Portuguese empire Allowed Brazil to trade directly with world, rather than through Portugal John VI in Brazil John VI returned to Portugal after revolution, 1820 Left son Pedro to rule Brazil Brazilian-born colonists began to protest colonial status Transition happened smoothly, little violence 1822, Prince Pedro declared Brazil independent, was crowned Emperor Pedro I Son Pedro in Charge


22 Contrast In what ways was the independence movement in Brazil different from independence movements elsewhere in South America? Answer(s): Brazil won independence more smoothly and without violence.

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