Presentation on theme: "Independence in Latin America"— Presentation transcript:
1 Independence in Latin America PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusEarly Struggles in Latin AmericaIndependence in MexicoMap: Independence in Latin AmericaRevolutionary Leaders in South AmericaFaces of History: Two Revolutionary LeadersQuick Facts: Causes and Effects of Revolution in Latin America
2 Independence in Latin America Main IdeaRevolutionary ideas took hold in Latin America as colonies fought for independence from Europe.Reading FocusHow did early struggles in Latin America affect Haiti and other colonies?What events led to independence in Mexico?Who were the key revolutionary leaders in South America, and what did they achieve?
3 Early Struggles in Latin America The Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions inspired some in Latin America to seek greater freedom.Saint Domingue, western half of Caribbean island Hispaniola, first Latin American territory to break ties with EuropeSugar exports made Saint Domingue one of France’s richest possessionsProsperity built on slave laborFrench Revolution had dramatic effect on islandHaiti Becomes IndependentDeclaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen gave vote to all free men, including mulattoesFrench settlers on Saint Domingue resisted new lawToussaint L’Ouverture led bloody revolt against settlersToussaint’s military, political actions made him hero in HispaniolaToussaint L’Ouverture
4 Napoleon ConcernedFrench emperor Napoleon worried about revolt in HispaniolaSent French general to take control of colony away from ToussaintIsland forces struggled for months1802, Toussaint agreed to armisticeFrench broke agreement, sent him to prison; Toussaint died there, 1803Fight for independence continued1804, revolutionaries declared independenceNamed new nation Haiti
5 Colonies of Spain and Portugal Another Kind of Independence1800s, Spain controlled most of Latin America; Portugal governed BrazilIn the 1700s Spanish kings had made improvements in colonies, building roads, regulating trade; colonies grew in wealth and prosperityEducation and New IdeasWealth gave some in Latin America access to education, new ideasEducated colonists read works of Enlightenment philosophers, learned about revolutions in France, AmericaTensions GrowingTensions grew in Latin America between creoles, people of European descent born in colonies, and peninsulares, colonists born in SpainSimilar distinction between Brazilian-born, Portuguese-born colonists
6 Creoles vs. Peninsulares Growing TensionsCreoles, peninsulares made up highest social classPeople of mixed race, Africans, Indians lower on social scaleCreoles excluded from highest levels of government, churchAs prosperity grew, creoles resented peninsulares, faraway Spanish rulersCreoles vs. Peninsulares1807, French emperor Napoleon invaded Spain, PortugalSpanish king imprisoned, Portuguese king fled to BrazilInvasion weakened Spanish, Portuguese power in Latin AmericaCreole revolutionaries decided time right for fight for independenceNapoleon
7 How did Haiti win independence from France? SequenceHow did Haiti win independence from France?Answer(s): A rebellion of slaves and mulattoes became a revolution against France after Napoleon tried to take power from the revolutionary leader Toussaint L'Ouverture.
8 Independence in Mexico Napoleon’s conquest of Spain was the spark for independence in the colony of New Spain, as Mexico was known at the time. Mexico was a Spanish colony with a mixture of creoles, peninsulares, Indians, and people of mixed race.1810, creole priest, Father Miguel Hidalgo, made first public call for Mexican independenceHad history of challenging authority, eventually met creoles who wanted to take power from peninsulares, helped plan rebellionFather HidalgoSeptember 16, 1810, Hidalgo delivered famous speech calling for fight against Spanish peninsulares, though not against SpainSpanish authorities realized Hidalgo behind growing revolution; captured, executed himCall to RevoltHidalgo would later become known as the Father of Mexican Independence.
9 Morelos Continues the Revolution After death of Hidalgo, another creole priest, Jose Maria Morelos, became leader of revolutionary movementOrganized Mexican congress, representatives from many placesWanted all people born in Mexico, whether Indian, mixed or creole, to be called AmericansIndependent RepublicMorelos wanted Mexico to be an independent republic with guaranteed freedomsStrong military leader, took control of parts of Mexico for independence movementCaptured, found guilty of treason, executed by Spanish authorities
10 A Creole King for Mexico Iturbide to Lead FightNot all creoles wanted independence from Spain; some were royalists1820, Agustin de Iturbide asked to lead final battle against revolutionariesSpanish authorities believed he could end Mexican independence movementSwitching SidesIturbide believed liberal revolution underway in Spain might take away some of his power; decided to switch sides, fight for Mexican revolutionariesMade three-part proposal to leader of revolutionIturbide’s ProposalMexico would gain independence but be ruled by monarchCreoles and peninsulares would have equal rightsRoman Catholic Church would be official church of Mexico
11 Different Proposal Independence Iturbide’s independence proposal different from ideas of Hidalgo, MorelosAfter ten years of fighting, the compromise brought together many different groups; creoles and peninsulares, revolutionaries and royalistsIndependenceUnified under plan, royalists and rebel troops joined Iturbide to win independenceIn 1821, Mexico declared independence from SpainThat same year Mexico named Iturbide as its emperor and he became Emperor Agustin I of Mexico
15 Compare and ContrastHow were the goals of Hidalgo, Morelos, and Iturbide different, and how were they similar?Answer(s): Hidalgo wanted the peasants to revolt against the peninsulares, not against Spain; Morelos wanted independence from Spain and an "American" identity to unify all people born in Mexico; Iturbide wanted to create an independent monarchy, give creoles and peninsulares equal rights, make the Roman Catholic Church the official church of Mexico
16 Revolutionary Leaders in South America InspirationRevolutions in Haiti, Mexico, America, France inspired leaders in South AmericaIndependence movements began to form, leaders emergedSimon BolivarSimon Bolivar, most influential leader in South American independence movementKnown as “the Liberator”Venezuelan RootsBolivar born into wealthy creole family, often traveled to EuropeAdmired Napoleon’s leadership; in Rome, pledged to liberate South AmericaIndependence1811, Venezuela declared independence from SpainBolivar led military campaigns against Spanish for 10 years, defeated Spanish 1821
17 Bolivar’s Dream Bolivar had dream for newly independent South America Wanted to form one large, united country called Federation of the AndesDream never became realityBolivar set up state of Gran Colombia, included what are now Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, EcuadorOther leaders set up separate countries in Peru, Bolivia, other placesBolivar complained “America is ungovernable”
19 José de San Martin Chile Gran Colombia José de San Martin fought for independence from Spain in southSan Martin had fought against Napoleon in SpainBorn in Argentina, returned home when he learned country rising up against Spanish rule; eventually led independence movement in Argentina and most of southern South America1816, San Martin declared independence for Argentina, moved on to ChileLed troops over 15,000 foot summit in AndesSurprised Spanish troops, won independence for ChileChileAfter Chile, San Martin moved to Gran Colombia, met Simon BolivarHistorians do not know what they discussed when they metSan Martin resigned position after meeting, returned to EuropeLeft Bolivar in powerGran Colombia
20 Pedro I John VI in Brazil Son Pedro in Charge The story of independence was a bit different in the Portuguese colony of Brazil.1807, Portuguese king John VI, family, fled to Brazil when Napoleon invaded PortugalStatus of colony raised having Portuguese monarch thereJohn VI named Rio de Janeiro capital of Portuguese empireAllowed Brazil to trade directly with world, rather than through PortugalJohn VI in BrazilJohn VI returned to Portugal after revolution, 1820Left son Pedro to rule BrazilBrazilian-born colonists began to protest colonial statusTransition happened smoothly, little violence1822, Prince Pedro declared Brazil independent, was crowned Emperor Pedro ISon Pedro in Charge