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Refugees, Exiles, and Displacement in the Contemporary World.

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Presentation on theme: "Refugees, Exiles, and Displacement in the Contemporary World."— Presentation transcript:

1 Refugees, Exiles, and Displacement in the Contemporary World

2 Key definitions Migrants: (leave voluntary (documented and nondocumented--illegal aliens) Migrants: (leave voluntary (documented and nondocumented--illegal aliens) Refugees: forced to leave Refugees: forced to leave Internally Displaced people (IPS) Internally Displaced people (IPS) –within national borders

3 Forced Migrations: A History of Refugees and Displaced Persons – Triangular slave trade (c.10 million ) – Settler economies: Australian convicts (165, ) Australian convicts (165, ) the Trail of Tears (16,000 Cherokee 1830s: GA-OK) the Trail of Tears (16,000 Cherokee 1830s: GA-OK) apartheid apartheid – Colonial economies and famine e.g., Irish potato famine 1840s – several million leave e.g., Irish potato famine 1840s – several million leave – World War I – 6 million displaced – World War II – 45 million worldwide – 27 million displaced in Europe – 27 million displaced in Europe

4 Causes 1: Colonial origins of dispossession Colonial processes: Colonial processes: –‘tribes’ and ‘ethnic groups’ fixed identities –Racialized class divisions Certain groups favored for colonial service Certain groups favored for colonial service Racism, law, and settlement Racism, law, and settlement Differential access to material resources Differential access to material resources Migrant labor recruitment systems Migrant labor recruitment systems

5 Causes 2. Nationalist origins of dispossession Nationalist responses to ethnic differences Nationalist responses to ethnic differences Modernize, assimilate, Modernize, assimilate, –Modernization process generates social dislocations –Assimilation: E.g., Ethiopia Amaharic hegemonic drive: language, religion, music, dress Physical violence and intimidation Physical violence and intimidation Marginalization Marginalization –Access to jobs, discrimination, racialized laws Voluntary out-migration Voluntary out-migration Forced expulsion Forced expulsion

6 Causes 3: War and displacement Classical War: World War I, World War II Classical War: World War I, World War II Cold War: Korea, Viet-Nam, wars of national liberation as proxy wars Cold War: Korea, Viet-Nam, wars of national liberation as proxy wars Gang War, identity-based warfare, rise of failed states, warlords, ethnic conflict, war for sex & loot, transnational criminal cartels, terrorist- criminal alliances, global crime as a profitable business model Gang War, identity-based warfare, rise of failed states, warlords, ethnic conflict, war for sex & loot, transnational criminal cartels, terrorist- criminal alliances, global crime as a profitable business model

7 Representative “Warlords” Iraq Iraq –Saddam Hussein Yugoslavia Yugoslavia –Slobodan Milosevic –Franjo Tudjman –Radovan Karadzic Cambodia Cambodia –Pol Pot Somalia Somalia –Mohammed Aideed Sierra Leone Sierra Leone –Foday Sankoh Haiti Haiti –Raoul Cedras Many Others Many Others –from Angola & Congo –to Afghanistan & Colombia

8 Causes 3. Neo-Liberal origins of dispossession Colonial national borders Colonial national borders The ‘state’ is the enemy The ‘state’ is the enemy – Weak. Indebted. Corrupt. Comprador. – Militarization. – Structural adjustment, debt, and poverty – Reactions: Defense of the ‘nation’ against the state – e.g., Zapatistas and the Militia movement Economic crises and unemployment Economic crises and unemployment Famine and environmental crisis Famine and environmental crisis

9 Where do refugees go? Displaced within a country Displaced within a country Neighboring countries Neighboring countries Burden on poor nations Burden on poor nations Asylum countries and cities Asylum countries and cities Economic, Social, Legal, Medical impacts of Refugees Economic, Social, Legal, Medical impacts of Refugees “Host” Nations and Hostility towards refugees “Host” Nations and Hostility towards refugees Anti-Immigration Movements Anti-Immigration Movements

10 International Agencies and the Evolution of Refugee Policies UNHCR and NGOs and their policies UNHCR and NGOs and their policies Promote voluntary repatriation (requires dramatic changes at home) Promote voluntary repatriation (requires dramatic changes at home) Promote integration in new society (problem: resistance of hosts) Promote integration in new society (problem: resistance of hosts) Seek resettlement in a third country Seek resettlement in a third country Vulnerable Position: Economically, Legally, Politically, Psychologically Vulnerable Position: Economically, Legally, Politically, Psychologically

11 Global refugee population, Year MillionsYear Millions Year MillionsYear Millions Source: UNHCR web site Source: UNHCR web site

12 Global Refugee Population

13

14 Africa’s first ‘modern’ refugee crisis occurred in the late 1950s during Algeria’s independence struggle. UNHCR provided assistance for 200,000 refugees who fled to surrounding countries. UNHCR/533/1961 S.Wright

15 As colonialism came to a close, conflicts erupted in many parts of Africa in the 1960s including, not for the last time, strife in the central African state of Rwanda. UNHCR/1149/1964/W.McCoy

16 An estimated three million persons, including these Vietnamese boat people arriving in Malaysia in 1978, fled in the wake of the various conflicts in Indochina. UNHCR/8268/1978/K.Gaugler

17 A cycle of repression and violence engulfed Central America in the 1980s and more than 300,000 people, including this Guatemalan woman in Mexico, received assistance. UNHCR/12177/1982/M.Vanappelghem

18 Drought and war resulted in a massive influx of Ethiopians into Sudan during the 1980s and tens of thousands of persons died before a relief effort became effective. UNHCR/15065/1985/M.Vanappelghem

19 Nearly 1.5 million Mozambicans fled civil war to neighboring countries in the 1980s, receiving assistance and education. In 1992, UNHCR began helping them return home in the largest repatriation of refugees in African history. UNHCR/18024/1988/A.Hollmann

20 By late 1991 nearly 750,000 Somalis were sheltering in Ethiopia’s Hararghe region and the need for wood became a serious environmental burden in one of Africa’s most inhospitable spots. UNHCR/21053/1991/B.Press

21 War and displacement ripped through West Africa in the last few years. More than 800,000 Liberians fled their homeland in the early 1990s, followed by tens of thousands of Sierra Leoneans. The supply of clean water was essential to prevent the spread of disease. UNHCR/23112/1993/L.Taylor

22 The 1994 genocide in Rwanda triggered a massive exodus into neighboring Zaire and Tanzania where huge refugee camps such as the one established in the Ngara area of Tanzania sprung up. UNHCR/25192/1995/C.Sattlberger

23 The Gulf War in the early 1990s was followed by the exodus of 1.5 million Iraqi Kurds. Some refugees, including these children, were able to return home within weeks. Many are still displaced. UNHCR/21008/1991/A.Roulet

24 Within days of NATO’s air strikes against Serb positions in 1999, nearly one million civilians fled or were forced into exile from Kosovo, including these civilians at a border crossing with neighboring Macedonia. UNHCR/29015/1999/R.LeMoyne

25 Conflict Specifics for HIC Levels Off LIC Business is Good Internal Political & Ethnic Violence Goes Through the Roof High-Intensity ConflictLow-Intensity ConflictInternal War Source: PIOOM (NL), data with permission © A. Jongman

26 Collateral Specifics for 2000 Complex Emergencies 29 Countries Refugees/Displaced 67 Countries Food Security 27 Countries Child Soldiers 42 Countries Modern ‘Plagues’ ‘#’ countries Peacekeeping Forces 18 UN, 20 Other Landmines 62 Countries Torture Common 94 Countries Corruption Common 78 Countries Censorship Very High 63 Countries *State of the World Atlas, 2000, all others from PIOOM Map

27 Major Displacement and Return in 2000 Afghanistan (250,000 newly displaced; 172,000 flee to Pakistan; 183,000 repatriate from Iran; another 76,000 repatriate from Pakistan); Angola (300,000 civil war); Bosnia (59,300 return home); Burundi (150,000 flee from civil war); Colombia (315,000 political violence; 266,000 leave the country); Congo-Kinshasa (1 million flee war and atrocities); East Timor (40,000 repatriate from West Timor); Eritrea (750,000 flee border war with neighboring Ethiopia); Guinea (60,000 Guineans flee from attacks by rebels from Sierra Leone); Indonesia (800,000 displaced by religious and ethnic violence); Kosovo (9,900 newly displaced; more than 100,000 Kosovars repatriate); Liberia (50,000 Liberians flee insurgent attacks and retaliations by Liberia troops); Philippines (800,000 temporarily displaced; 650,000 return home by year's end); Sierra Leone (210,000 flee renewed civil war and rebel atrocities); Sri Lanka (230,000 temporarily displaced); Sudan (100,000 forced from homes by civil war and aeal bombing); Uganda (120,000 newly uprooted by insurgency and atrocities). These numbers reflect movement during the year, not necessarily year-end totals.

28 Which is ‘normal’? Peace or violence?


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