2 Contens What were The wars of the Roses? The situation before war The first battlesEdward IV's victory2 Lancastrian revoltsThe periodRichard, Duke of GloucesterYorkist victories in 1471Princess in the towerThe last battles and Henry TudorBattles – time lineBattles - mapThe RoyalsBooks
3 What were The wars of the Roses? the Wars of the Roses were a series of civil wars - between adherents of the House of Lancaster and the House of Yorkboth houses were branches of the Plantagenet royal housethe name "Wars of the Roses" - badges associated with the two royal houses, the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White rose of York
4 What were The wars of the Roses? Badgesthe white rose of Yorkthe red rose of Lancaster
5 The situation before war the antagonism started with the overthrow of King Richard II in 1399.Henry Bolingbroke was crowned as Henry IV. He was tolerated as king since Richard II's government had been highly unpopular.Henry IV - died in 1413after Henry IV‘s death- 8 month son- instructions how to command till he will be full agedRichard IIHenry IV
6 The situation before war Henry V - great soldier- military successmain power - Lancaster‘s branch Beaufortreasons of the war :- bad condition of economy- bad ending of the 100 year‘s warHenry V
7 The first battles St.Albans - on 22nd May 1455 - Richard Duke of York - small force toward London- the first open conflictThe Battle of Blore- on September 23, 1459- a large Lancastrian army failed- the Earl of Salisbury (York)The Battle of Ludford Bridge - shortly after the Battle of Blore- combined Yorkist armies X much larger Lancastrian force- Yorkist leaders fled- York himself fled back to Ireland- Edward, Earl of March (York's eldest son, later Edward VI), Salisbury, and Warwick fled to Calais- The Lancastrians - total control
8 The first battles The Battle of Northampton - on 10 July 1460 - proved disastrous for the Lancastrians- the Yorkist army under the Earl of Warwick- with the King Henry the Yorkists returned to London.The Battle of Wakefield- The Duke of York with the Earl of Salisbury XMargaret of Anjou- Margaret's army outnumbered Richard's by more than two to one- Richard was slainThe Second Battle of St Albans – 1461- the Queen won the Lancastrians' most decisive victory yet“Yorkist forces fled they left behind King Henry, who was found unharmed, sitting quietly beneath a tree“- Henry knighted 30 Lancastrian soldiers
9 Edward IV's victory The Battle of Towton - 1461 - the biggest battle - 20,000 men being killed during the battle- the greatest recorded single day's loss of life on English soil- Edward and his army won- Henry and Margaret - were waiting in York with their son Edward→ fled north when they heard of the outcomeIn June 1461- Edward IV's official coronation- rapturous welcome from his supporters- Edward was able to rule in relative peacefor ten yearsEdward IV
10 2 Lancastrian revolts In 1464 - Lancastrian revolts in the North The Battle of Hedgeley Moor- on April 25Battle of Hexham- on May 15→ both revolts were put down by Warwick's brother, John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu
11 The periodThe period deterioration in the relationship between King Edward and Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick - "the Kingmaker".This had several causes:Edward married Elizabeth Woodville in secret in 1464.Edward's preference for an alliance with Burgundy (over France),Edward's reluctance to allow his brothers George, Duke of Clarence, and Richard, Duke of Gloucester, to marry Warwick's daughters, Isabel Neville and Anne Neville.
12 Richard, Duke of Gloucester In Warwick had formed an alliance with Edward's brother George →the Battle of Edgecote Moor - Warwick defeated and held Edward at Middleham Castle in Yorkshire → Edward had to summon a parliament at York1) Edward would be declared illegitimate2) the crown would thus pass to George, Duke of Clarencecountry was in turmoil and Edward was able to call on the loyalty of his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, and the majority of the noblesRichard arrived at the head of a large force and liberated King EdwardWarwick and Clarence were declared traitors and forced to flee to FranceIn France - a marriage was arranged :Warwick's daughter Anne Neville + Margaret's son, the former Prince of Wales, Edward of Westminster → Warwick invaded England in the autumn of 1470
13 Yorkist victories in 1471 The Battle of Barnet - in 1471 - was fought in thick fog- some of Warwick's men attacked each other by mistake- Warwick's army fled- he himself was cut down trying to reach his horse.The Battle of Tewkesbury – Margaret‘s army, commanded by Duke of Somerset, was destroyed- prince Edward of Westminster, the Lancastrian was killed- Henry VI -no heirs-was murdered shortly afterwardsTewkesbury
14 Princess in the towerthe restoration of Edward IV in 1471 is sometimes seen as marking the end of the Wars of the Roseswhen he died suddenly in 1483, political and dynastic turmoil erupted againat the time of Edward's premature death, his heir, Edward V, was only 12 years oldEdward's brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester → captured the young king Edward V and kept him in the Tower of London he was later joined by his younger brotherRichard alleged Edward IV's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville as illegal-alleged the two boys illegitimateRichard named as King Richard IIIprincessRichard III
15 The last battles and Henry Tudor Henry VIIThe Battle of Bosworth Field - in the summer of 1485 Henry Tudor (claim to the throne was through his mother, Margaret Beaufort, a descendant of Edward III ) defeated Richard-Henry became King Henry VII of England and Richard was slain during the battle- Henry then strengthened his position by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV-symbols of the red and white roses into the new emblem of the red and white Tudor Rosemany historians consider the accession of Henry VII to mark the end of the Wars of the RosesThe Battle of Stoke in 1487, Lambert Simnel - close physical resemblance to the young Earl of Warwick-Henry defeated forces led by John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln
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