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Presentation on theme: "The SIOP® Model BUILDING BACKGROUND"— Presentation transcript:

NC Guide to the SIOP Model Institute The SIOP Model Overview The SIOP® Model BUILDING BACKGROUND 1 min Like SIOP, WIDA also underscores the importance of Building Background. The notions of language and culture as valuable resources and the influence of past experiences are stated in the first two of WIDA’s Guiding Principles: Students’ languages and cultures are valuable resources to be tapped and incorporated into schooling. Students’ home, school, and community experiences influence their language development. 1 1

2 Content Objectives We will:
Identify techniques for connecting students’ personal experiences, cultural background, and past learning to lesson concepts. Explain the key elements of academic language. 1 min Present the objectives in a variety of ways: Ask participants to read them aloud. Ask one participant to read them aloud. Ask participants to read them silently. The presenter reads them. The next 3 ideas are from Making Content Comprehensible 4th edition, Teaching Ideas for Lesson Preparation p. 44 Ask participants to pick out important words from the objective and highlight them. Ask participants to paraphrase the objective with a partner, each taking a turn, using the frame: “We are going to learn___”. Present the objective and then do a Timed Pair-Share, asking participants to predict some of the thing they think they will be doing for this section. 2

3 Language Objectives We will:
Produce a variety of sentence types to identify the tiers of vocabulary in a short passage with a small group. Use an “I can” statement to describe how we will apply Building Background in our classes using our notes. 1 min Our language objectives attempt to model the form that Language Objectives will take in your classes. In the classroom you, North Carolina’s teachers, would teach the language indicated in the language objective in conjunction with the content objective. You would aim to include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading and writing) throughout the unit. The words italicized in blue are language features a teacher might focus on. 3

4 Building Background Features
Concepts Linked to Students’ Background Bridge Past + New Learning Develop Key Vocabulary 3 mins HO: Principles of Language Development #1 and#2 in SIOP Overview section Help participants to understand that there are 3 features to Building Background that enhance the effectiveness of our lessons---SIOP helps teachers to explicitly link concepts to students’ background experiences, develop academic English, and make explicit connections between new learning and concepts previously learned. We are using the word “bridge” instead of SIOP’s word “link” past and new learning because of our mnemonic device to help us remember these features. Get participants involved through hand gestures. Explain to participants that the use of body movements with content concepts is a good ESL strategy. Read Feature #1 – Model creating a link with thumb and pointer finger interlocking as a chain. Have participants copy creating a link with hands and reading aloud feature. Read Feature #2 – Model turning an imaginary key. Have participants copy action and read aloud feature. Read Feature #3 – Model creating a bridge sweeping your hand over your head from back to front symbolizing a bridge from past to new. Have participants copy action and read aloud feature. Repeat and Review as a group all 3 features using hand gestures*. WIDA supports SIOP’s features in Building Background. WIDA includes socio-cultural context in its features of academic language chart and WIDA links to students’ background in its 10 Guiding Principles. Guiding Principal #1 and#2 (HO). Furthermore in its definition of academic language, WIDA expands academic language beyond the word level, vocabulary, so that sentence level and discourse level are also addressed. *Note: Throughout the presentation the presenter may want to refer back to these gestures while introducing each feature in detail. Content Words Academic Language Words and Word Parts

5 The Power of Building Background Activity

6 Need To Know…

7 Building Background Features
Concepts Linked to Students’ Background Bridge Past + New Learning Develop Key Vocabulary 30 sec The first feature we will explore is concepts linked to students’ background. Content Words Academic Language Words and Word Parts

8 Concepts linked to students’ background experiences
1 min A learner’s knowledge of the world – his schemata - provides a basis for understanding, learning, and remembering facts and ideas found in texts. Students with knowledge of a topic have better recall and are better able to elaborate on aspects of the topic than those who have limited knowledge of it. English language learners, however, come from diverse cultural backgrounds. They may struggle with a text or concept because their schemata does not match those of the culture for which the text was written. We have to acknowledge that many of our ELs, even those born in the US, have an array of experiences that are quite different from those of the majority US culture. Therefore, it will help us to be aware of some of these cultural differences. Let’s talk about culture for a few minutes. CLICK to next slide.

9 Deep Culture vs. Surface Culture
music dress food dating family ties 5 min All of the social and cultural processes in the student‘s life - in all contexts-home, school, community, and the broader society is commonly known as the student’s culture. An iceberg is often used to illustrate culture. What we see of the iceberg represents surface culture.  This is a very small part of what makes up “culture”. That part of the iceberg under the water represents deep culture, the non-tangible aspects of culture. They are not seen at the surface. Like the iceberg, most of what is defined as culture is not visible, but it is there. Have participants do this activity with a partner in a think-pair-share. Have participants think of aspects of surface culture and then share with their partner. Then have them think of aspects of deep culture and share with each other. Ask some pairs to report out. After they provide examples of surface culture CLICK to bring up “dress, music, food”. Restate that surface culture is what we can see. It is the most obvious aspects of culture. Ask other pairs to provide examples of deep culture. CLICK to bring up. These are only some examples of surface and deep culture. concepts of time beliefs health & medicine Urban/rural 9

10 Multiple Meanings / Polysemous Words
Moises 3 min (video is 12:24, but only show the polysemous word example which can be found between these times 2:14-3:15) Show video on Moises “Immersion”. Moises, a ten-year-old student, struggles to communicate in his new school with limited access to his native language.

11 Socioculturally Supportive Climate
How are we doing in creating a socioculturally supportive climate? What can I do in my classroom? Do I know about the different cultural backgrounds of my students? 1 min Food for thought. How can we use information about our students’ culture to increase academic achievement? What can we do to make our school and classroom climate positive for all? How can I tap into students’ languages and cultures as valuable resources following WIDA’s first Guiding Principle and this feature in Building Background? WIDA Guiding Principle: 1. Students’ languages and cultures are valuable resources to be tapped and incorporated into schooling.

12 Cultural Comparisons (Hofstede)
Individualist Collectivist Geert Hostede Cultural Dimensions Hofstede, G (1986) 'Cultural differences in teaching and learning' International Journal of Intercultural Relations 3 min One thing all of us can do is to find out about our students’ cultures and how it can impact the school and our classroom. The following information is from Geert Hostede, a leading researcher in intercultural studies. He developed the paradigm for taking account of cultural elements in international economics, communication and cooperation. One dimension Hostede has analyzed is Individualism versus Collectivism. "What is the difference between a collectivist culture and an individualistic culture? A collectivist culture sees the world from the perspective that all things are interconnected. Examples that we see, several families living in one house, several students owning one car and sharing it. To us who come from an individualistic culture, that is counter cultural. Our sense of ownership and responsibility is different. We believe in having our own rooms, houses, cars, knowledge, etc.  Optional: Citizens of English-speaking countries (US, Australia, Great Britain) are at the top of the independent continuum versus citizens of Arabic and Latin American countries such as Mexico, Guatemala, and Costa Rica. Example:  We believe in the ownership of information whereas others believe in the sharing of information.  We call that, "cheating“.  To Hispanics sharing information with those who don’t have it is an obligation. Is one right and the other wrong?  NO, they are just different. Sometimes we judge behaviors we see on the surface without understanding the world view underneath. Creating a climate of acceptance is necessary for learning.  There are many studies that connect student achievement to school and community climate. (Collier)

13 Academic Differences MATH
In some Latin American countries A comma is used to separate a decimal from a whole number: 0,5 instead of 0.5 Division may be done in a different way: 127|4 31,75 A period is used to indicate thousands: to indicate three thousand. 1 min Even how we do math and write numbers can vary culturally. These differences may be small, but they can cause confusion. In some European and Latin American countries the divisor is to the right of the dividend, and separated by a vertical bar. The division also occurs in the column, but the quotient (result) is written below the divider. Source: 13

14 More Academic differences
Dates are written differently: 5/7/90 would mean July 5, 1990. Days of the week and months of the year are not capitalized in Spanish. Discourse patterns differ among cultures. 1 min Dates are written differently. The majority of the world’s countries write the date as day, month, year; unlike the US which uses month, day, year. Discourse patterns differ among cultures from the American linear style to the Asian circular approach. The linear pattern is thesis/topic sentence, main idea, support , conclusion. In the Asian, circular pattern, thought is developed indirectly. To directly address the main idea or issue is considered very rude. In Romance languages, which includes Spanish, development is by digression; takes lots of time; begin with topic, go off on tangent, contradict tangent, conclude with main idea; flowery, fancy, formal, intensifiers, reiteration, say it up to 7 times (average is 3 times) each time gets bigger, better, more flowery than before. Sending a message in English discourse pattern may come across as a rude command to parents How will knowing about discourse patterns help you? (possible response: Teach students the discourse pattern of American English explicitly along with subject area content. Students cannot read nor write standard English if they do not know the discourse pattern expected. 14

15 Do we know… 3 min POSE THE QUESTION: Have you had a situation where a student reacted to something you said or a gesture that you made that was unexpected to you? Do you know why? If needed to start or continue discussion ask: Do we know… Which students work naturally in groups? Students who come from more collective world views work better in groups. Which students learn best in same sex environments? Middle Eastern students are not accustomed to being with members of the opposite sex. Which students suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? Many students come from war-torn countries or refugee camps. Often girls are raped, abused. What we might do naturally that can be offensive in certain cultures? If we show the sole of the shoe to students from Middle East, it is considered a grave insult. Ask participants to brainstorm others. (Thumbs up is a vulgar insult in the Middle East) What religious practices may conflict with those of our dominant culture? Students who are fasting during Ramadan won’t eat in school; students who are not allowed to show their bodies will not dress out for PE; students who are Jehovah’s Witnesses will not celebrate birthdays, holidays and will no participate in school parties.

16 Political Cartoon 2 min - View cartoon.
-Let participants ponder the image. Chide saying, “This is so funny!” -Participants will be frustrated. Ask “What is the meaning behind this political cartoon?” “Do you care? Why or why not?” -”Why is this cartoon not amusing to you?” “What further information do you need to make sense of this?” - Answers - Background, where is it? when is it? Who is it? Why? Why blocks? What is power city? Why is someone kicking the blocks over -Then ask, “How many of you have already lost interest in this?” Already ...this means nothing to you (or me). -How do our students feel when we do not help them make links to prior knowledge and develop background. They get frustrated just like we did and just move on to something more interesting in their heads hoping the teacher will move on to something more interesting.

17 Osrin, Ray, “Political Cartoon,”
Subject Tower City Center Description Political Cartoon from The Plain Dealer which shows Forbes kicking over building blocks that spell out Tower City. Date June 6, 1984 2 min This is the background information on the cartoon. Evidently, in the 80’s in Cleveland Ohio, builders were going to tear down a popular spot for teens to play basketball in order to build a big mall/ shopping center. Basketball players were not happy. Source: Osrin, Ray, “Political Cartoon,” Teaching & Learning Cleveland , accessed May 21, 2013,

18 If no link, Build Background
Culturally embedded: Political cartoons Ground Hog Day A day at the beach Cultural assumptions: e.g. Frosty the Snowman Fairy tales: e.g.Cinderella American history 1 min Sometimes linking to past experience is not enough because students don’t have the same past experiences that native-English speakers have had. Thus, this feature also demands building background knowledge as needed. The topics above may be such topics that require background building. Others might be the American Revolution, the Civil War, etc.

19 Thinking about your classroom activities
Consider: Will the assignment or classroom activity bring up unpleasant associations? Is the assignment culturally appropriate? How can you link a students past experiences to the classroom? Or give an example of a time when you successfully linked a student’s background experiences to a lesson? 3 min (1 min to write, 2 to talk) Think of activities in your classroom that may have been effective/ineffective because of the background of students. Write on a sticky note. Share with your “eyeball” partner. An eyeball partner is when you get up and talk to someone not at your table who catches your eye.

20 Social & Cultural Processes and Academic Language
3 min HO: Gibbons and Zwiers quotes and questions regarding sociocultural context Social and cultural processes influence how we and our students understand and use academic language.. That is why fish, fishbowls are common metaphors when discussing English language development. We are like fish in a fishbowl. Our world is the fishbowl and it is all we know. In English Learners Academic Literacy and Thinking: Learning in the Challenge Zone, Pauline Gibbons says that the fish doesn’t recognize the water in which it swims and Jeff Zweirs notes: “Because we are immersed in an ocean of academic language daily, it’s hard to notice the habits we automatically engage in to comprehend such language…When we become aware of our own habits and strategies, we can model them and make them available to our students.” (quotes on handout) As educators, we are swimming daily in academic language- as are our students. If we and are students do not recognize the water, or academic language, in which we are now swimming, there may be negative outcomes for many students- particularly those who are not familiar with standard English. To help our students swim through academic language and to help us, the teachers, navigate them through, WIDA has included sociocultural context in its Academic Language Chart. WIDA 2012 Amplification of ELD Standards p. 7 . Questions related to sociocultural context are on the bottom part of the quotes handout. fish-bowl-download

21 Sociocultural Context
5 min HO: bottom part of Zwiers_sociocultural context View the video clip, Ma & Pa Kettle Find Uranium, which is hyperlinked to the slide. (3.32 min). Say to participants that we will view a video clip to explore sociocultural context. After viewing the clip ask: 1)Why was this clip funny? (language of actors) 2)What factors affected the language used in the scenario? (actors’ social roles in clip, situation, register) 3) Why is sociocultural context important? (language – word choice, pronunciation, sentence structure- will vary with the context/students must be taught these variations)

22 Building Background Features
Concepts Linked to Students’ Background Bridge Past + New Learning Develop Key Vocabulary 1 min According to Michael Graves, vocabulary expert, English learners need to learn something like 40,000 words by the time they complete eighth grade. Other researchers tells us that you have to know 95% of the words in a text to understand it. Therefore, our students will need many opportunities, many approaches, and lots of motivation and encouragement to build strong vocabularies. (Hu, M., & Nation, P. (2000). Unknown vocabulary density and reading comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language. 12(1), ) Content Words Academic Language Words and Word Parts

23 Determining Key Vocabulary
The SIOP Model Common Core State Standards WIDA 10 min Have participants look on p of Making Content Comprehensible to see how The SIOP Model defines the types of academic vocabulary that teachers need to focus on: (content vocabulary, general academic vocabulary--cross-curricular terms/process & function, word parts) Then, say, we will hear what Sue Pimentel, lead writer of the Common Core State Standards English Language Arts has to say about vocabulary. Listen for what she calls language. (Language is Power.) Play for 4.50 minutes (end when you hear) “…vocabulary becomes really key and really important.” Note: CCSS Appendix A discusses: need for repeated exposure in a variety of contexts to the words students are trying to learn Build rich and flexible word knowledge: word parts, word origins, word relationships Three tiers of words (Beck, McKeowan, Kucan) ExC-ELL takes this work and applies/adjusts it for ELLs Goes beyond vocabulary and discusses language forms and conventions, and text complexity ) Thirdly, we will see what WIDA says about vocabulary: WIDA goes beyond vocabulary to include language forms and conventions, and linguistic complexity (2012 WIDA Amplification of ELD Standards p.7) as critical pieces to teach.

24 Cognates!!! Social Language Spanish Academic Language farming
agricultura agriculture job ocupación occupation grown-up adulto adult stick adherirse adheres country nación nation quiet calma calm same equivalente equivalent 3 min A WIDA Guiding Principle: #4. Students' academic language development in their native language facilitates their academic language development in English. Conversely, students' academic language development in English informs their academic language development in their native language, informs us to make our students aware of cognates that may exist between their language and English. Ask a participant to define “cognate”. Cognates are particularly helpful to our Spanish speakers as there are thousands of Spanish cognates. There may not be cognates between some language and English (Chinese and Korean). However, in Japanese there are some words that have been adopted in their language, for example “takushi” is taxi in Japanese. Other languages may use English words I their language. In Korean a computer is a computer. It is not called something different’ the English word was added to Korean. For examples of cognates: see 99 Ideas and Activities for Teaching English Learners with the SIOP model p **Also remind participants of the HUGE number of web resources available on the Internet and that they are very, very easy to find. Also mention false cognates: el éxito means “success” not exit, embarazada is used to mean pregnant, not embarrassed.

25 Word Parts: Roots and Affixes
How can we help students learn vocabulary? prefix + root + suffix 2 min By grade 6, native-English speakers have acquired words each year. It would be extremely difficult for ELs to learn all the words they need to know through instruction and memorization. Therefore, all teachers, must help students learn that many English words are formed with roots to which prefixes and suffixes are attached. For example, if a science teacher is teaching photosynthesis, he/she can help students learn the meaning of photosynthesis by introducing the meaning of the root, photo-(light). By comparing the words photosynthesis, photocopy, photograph, photo-finish, photogenic, students can see how these English words are related by both structure (prefix+root+suffix) and meaning. Jazz chant: Prefix on the left (hold left hand/arm up in an “L”); root word in the middle (hold hands in the middle); suffix at the end (hold right hand up), shsh… MCC p. 72 lists 14 roots that provide clues to the meaning of over 100,000 words. Prefix on the left; root word in the middle; suffix at the end, shsh…

26 97% of Affixes in K-12 Prefixes Suffixes dis- (not, opposite of)
in-, im-, il-, ir-, (not) re- (again) un- (not) -ed (past tense of verbs) -ing (present participle of verbs) -ly (characteristic of) -s, -es (plural of nouns and present tense of verbs) 1 min Shown are 97% of the prefixes and suffixes found in K-12 academic English. They need to be taught! Pick these for the most impact.

27 Tiers of Language Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 1 min In Making Content Comprehensible p and in Appendix A of the Common Core State Standards ELA, the 3 levels, or tiers, of words described by Beck, McKeown, and Kucan are discussed. These researchers have grouped words in terms of their commonality, more to less frequently occurring; and applicability, broader to narrower. Margarita Calderon whose work we use in North Carolina in the ExC-ELL program has reformulated/expanded Beck’s work to pertain to English learners and we encourage you to use Margarita’s model when thinking of which words to teach. The next slide will show us what each tier includes according to Dr. Calderon’s model. Note: Calderon’s model is not exactly the same as Beck’s.

28 Three Tiers (M. Calderón)
Basic words that are a part of everyday language. Needed to communicate, read, and write Academic words Polysemous Words (Words with multiple meanings) -Homophones (words that sound the same but have different meanings) Information Processing Words Transition Words Connectors Idioms Phrasal expressions/ Compound words Cross curricular words Subject specific words Infrequently Used Academic Words (Usually words bolded in textbooks) 2 min Tier 1 words are those common words that often we must teach because spelling and pronunciation trip up ELs. Sometimes we can teach these “on the fly” that is, by showing a picture or performing an action…words like water, rug, plant, car, sit Tier 3 words are those content –specific words that only occur in a certain subject….photosynthesis, circumference, legislature Tier 2 words are the vast majority of words. These are very high frequency, transition words, connectors, sophisticated words for rich discussions and specificity in descriptions…words such as swayed or periphery. They also include many words with multiple meanings as well as those process words like analyze, determine, classify, compare that occur across all content areas. Tier 2 words rarely get the attention ELs need. Note: another word for multiple meaning is polysemous words. We want to address all 3 tiers in all passages.

29 Tier 2 Words in State Exams (M
Tier 2 Words in State Exams (M. Calderón) : absence, accuracy, additive, effect, affect, allow, apparent, approach, arrange, assortment, assumption, basis, bases, behavior, belief, body, boundary, core, criteria, crucial, depict, deplete, device, display, distinct, generate, impact, illustrate… 30 sec Tier 2 words are all over the state tests. Often students cannot answer a content questions because they are stumped by the Tier 2 words. We need to teach words like the following. 7th and 8th grade state tests.

30 Idioms and Sayings “It’s raining cats and dogs out there!” “Don’t count your chickens before they hatch” “You need to get your ducks in a row” “He talks out of both sides of his mouth!” ___________________________ 2 min Idioms are more tier 2 examples that need to be purposefully addressed. The participants fill in the last two. Throw a soft ball to a table to initiate responses.

31 The “Student’s” Voice Margarita Calderón
A Queen’s Wish One gray winter day the elderly queen summoned all her grandchildren to the castle. “I have been fortunate to have lived a long life,” she said. “But in time your generation will rule the country. You must work persistently to help the people and take care of the land. “We will always work hard,” the children replied. “You must also be faithful to your brothers and sisters, no matter what,” the queen said. 5 min Handout: A Queen’s Wish Margarita Calderón often uses this example to illustrate the need for us to select words we think our student will struggle with, categorize them in the 3 tiers, and teach them. The video clip you are about to view is Dr. Calderón replicating a 7th grader reading a 3rd grade passage. Play voice clip of Dr. Calderón reading this passage like the student. min Information for presenter: In the following video clip Margarita is replicating a 7th grade long-term EL who is fairly fluent in English, but whose reading comprehension is not at grade level and who is not passing the standardized tests. The student was asked to do a think aloud as he reads the passage. The passage is from a 3rd grade textbook. Calderón & Associates

32 Activity Underline the words you think are simple (Tier 1)
Circle the words you think are more difficult (Tier 2) Put a rectangle around the words that you think are the key vocabulary (Tier 3) 3 min Handout: A Queen’s Wish Ask participants to follow these directions on their handout of “A Queen’s Wish.”

33 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Simple words Process, Idioms, Sophisticated
Content Words, Key Vocabulary wish rule summoned gray take care fortunate queen replied generation castle no matter what elderly persistently faithful 2 min Does your list look similar to this one? If not, don’t worry. It’s not as important to put these words in the right tier as it is to identify them to teach! There is no magic list of tiered words. We use our best judgment. Calderón & Associates

34 How can teach vocabulary in our classrooms? Page 80- 82 (SIOP manual)
Word Wall Four Corners Concept definition map Cloze sentences Vocabulary Games Foldables Word Sorts Carousel

35 Building Background Features
Concepts Linked to Students’ Background Bridge Past + New Learning Develop Key Vocabulary 1 min Get participants involved through hand gestures. Read Feature – Model creating a bridge sweeping your hand over your head from back to front symbolizing a bridge from past to new. Have participants copy action and read aloud feature. Content Words Academic Language Words and Word Parts

36 How Can We Bridge Past Learning to New Concepts?
SIOP says be… Explicit Intentionally planned Do a brief review of prior lesson 3 min Activity (2 options): a) Write on a sticky note how you presentlybridge past learning to new concepts. Find someone with the same color clothes as you and share ideas. b) Use to allow participants to post their ideas on how teachers can link past learning to new concepts. (This will need to be set up at least a day or two before the training so it can be a password-protected site. The finished product is wallwishers – post-its on the wall.) If you are unfamiliar with you need to look at it before the training. After these are posted CLICK to bring up what SIOP says and explain per the notes below if these have not already been noted in Making Content Comprehensible suggests: Explicitly ask, “Who remembers what we learned about_____? How does that relate to our chapter?” Intentionally review graphic organizers, previously used class notes, PPT slides, word banks, outlines, maps Review prior lesson what may look like a lack of prior knowledge may be a lack of accessibility in prior lessons that were taught. Perhaps the background materials was “covered,” but it was not learned meaningfully.

37 What Can I Use Right Away
to Help My ELLs? 2 min To wrap-up let’s do a quick-write. Begin your sentence with “I can…” and write something you learned or an activity that you saw in Building Background that you can take back and use in your classroom right away!! Then share at your table.

38 Sample SIOP Lesson Plan
2 mins HO: Sample SIOP Lesson Plan: Making Predictions. We will model how the features of Building Background can be part of your lesson plan. This lesson plan was taken from the SIOP PD Toolkit with a few additions to reflect input from the CCSS and the WIDA ELD Standards. Note the comments and the area shaded in gray.

39 Owning Building Background
Continue to write a lesson plan you can use including the features of Building Background Concepts linked to students’ backgrounds Links between past learning and new learning Develop key vocabulary Maximum 10 minutes Participants use this guide to SIOP a lesson. They should continue with the lesson they began to SIOPize in Lesson Preparation. We will collect one completed lesson plan per team at the end of this SIOP Institute. We want data to see how we’re doing in explaining the SIOP Model and how you are doing in internalizing it. May consider having participants work on this for 5-10 minutes, putting a * in the areas where they want to work or making notes to help them complete it later, possibly that evening. Participants can SIOP their lesson individually or with a partner. 39 39

40 Content Objectives How did we:
Identify techniques for connecting students’ personal experiences, cultural background, and past learning to lesson concepts Explain the key elements of academic language 1 min Participants should give an example of how we met these objectives. 40

41 Language Objectives How did we:
Produce a variety of sentence types to identify the tiers of vocabulary in a short passage with a small group. Use an “I can” statement to describe how we will apply Building Background in our classes using our notes 1 min Ask participants to give one example of how they accomplished a language objective “i.e. think back on the I can statement you wrote.” 93 mins 41

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