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Better Learning Through Structured Teaching Doug Fisher www.fisherandfrey.com

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(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focused Instruction Guided Instruction “ I do it ” “ We do it ” “ You do it together ” Collaborative Independent “ You do it alone ” A Structure for Instruction that Works

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(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008 In some classrooms … TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY “ I do it ” Independent “ You do it alone ” Focused Instruction

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(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008 In some classrooms … TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Independent “ You do it alone ”

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(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008 And in some classrooms … TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Guided Instruction “ I do it ” “ We do it ” Independent “ You do it alone ” Focused Instruction

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(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Guided Instruction “ I do it ” “ We do it ” “ You do it together ” Collaborative Independent “ You do it alone ” A Structure for Instruction that Works Focused Instruction

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Purpose = Expectations

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(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focused Instruction Guided Instruction “ I do it ” “ We do it ” “ You do it together ” Collaborative Independent “ You do it alone ” A Structure for Instruction that Works

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The established purpose focuses on student learning, rather than an activity, task, or assignment. The established purpose focuses on student learning, rather than an activity, task, or assignment.

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Which are Learning Goals? 1)Students will successfully complete the exercises in the back of chapter 3. 2)Students will create a metaphor representing the food pyramid. 3)Students will be able to determine subject/verb agreement in a variety of simple, compound, and complete sentences. 4)Students will understand the defining characteristics of fables, fairy tales, and tall tales. 5)Students will investigate the relationship between speed of air flow and lift provided by an airplane wing.

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Which are Learning Goals? 1.Students will successfully complete the exercises in the back of chapter 3. 2.Students will create a metaphor representing the food pyramid. 3.Students will be able to determine subject/verb agreement in a variety of simple, compound, and complete sentences. 4.Students will understand the defining characteristics of fables, fairy tales, and tall tales. 5.Students will investigate the relationship between speed of air flow and lift provided by an airplane wing.

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Students understand the relevance of the established purpose.

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…making connections between the subject and its application outside of the classroom walls. Relevance requires…

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…opportunities to learn about oneself as a learner.

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Relevance requires… … learning for learning’s sake.

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(c) Frey & Fisher, 2008 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focused Instruction Guided Instruction “ I do it ” “ We do it ” “ You do it together ” Collaborative Independent “ You do it alone ” A Structure for Instruction that Works

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Modeling Why? –Humans mimic or imitate –Students need examples of the type of thinking required –Facilitates the use of academic language

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Thinking Aloud in Math Background knowledge (e.g., When I see a triangle, I remember that the angles have to add to 180 .) Relevant versus irrelevant information (e.g., I ’ ve read this problem twice and I know that there is information included that I don ’ t need.) Selecting a function (e.g., The problem says ‘ increased by ’ so I know that I ’ ll have to add.) Setting up the problem (e.g., The first thing that I will do is … because … ) Estimating answers (e.g., I predict that the product will be about 150 because I see that there are 10 times the number.) Determining reasonableness of an answer (e.g., I ’ m not done yet as I have to check to see if my answer is makes sense.)

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The sum of one-fifth p and 38 is as much as twice p. Okay, I ’ ve read the problem twice and I have a sense of what they ’ re asking me. I see the term sum, so I know that I ’ m going to be adding. I know this because sum is one of the signal words that are used in math problems. I also know that when terms are combined, like one-fifth p, they are related because they make a phrase ‘ one-fifth of p ’ so I ’ ll write that 1/5 p. The next part says and 38, so I know that I ’ ll be adding 38 to the equation. Now my equation reads 1/5p + 38. But I know that ’ s not really an equation. I know from my experience that there has to be an equal sign someplace to make it an equation. Oh, they say as much as which is just a fancier way of saying equal to. So, I ’ ll add the equal sign to my equation: 1/5p + 38 =. And the last part is twice p. And there it is again, one of those combined phrases like one-fifth p, but this time twice p. So I ’ ll put that on the other side of the equation: 1/5p + 38 = 2p. That ’ s all they ’ re asking me to do. For this item, I just need to set up the equation. But I know that I can solve for p and I like solutions. I know that you can solve for p as well. Can you do so on your dry erase boards?

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Modeling Comprehension Inference Summarize Predict Clarify Question Visualize Monitor Synthesize Evaluate Connect

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Word Solving Context clues Word parts (prefix, suffix, root, base, cognates) Resources (others, Internet, dictionary)

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Using Text Structure Informational Texts –Problem/Solution, Compare/Contrast, Sequence, Cause/Effect, Description Narrative Texts –Story grammar (plot, setting, character) –Dialogue –Literary devices

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Using Text Features Headings Captions Illustrations Charts Graphs Bold words Table of contents Glossary Index Tables Margin notes Italicized words

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