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**Better Learning Through Structured Teaching**

Doug Fisher

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**TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY**

Focused Instruction “I do it” Guided Instruction “We do it” “You do it together” Collaborative “You do it alone” Independent STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY A Structure for Instruction that Works (c) Frey & Fisher, 2008

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**In some classrooms … TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “I do it”**

Focused Instruction “You do it alone” Independent STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY (c) Frey & Fisher, 2008

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**In some classrooms … TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “You do it alone”**

Independent STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY (c) Frey & Fisher, 2008

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**And in some classrooms …**

TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY Focused Instruction “I do it” Guided Instruction “We do it” “You do it alone” Independent STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY (c) Frey & Fisher, 2008

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**TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY**

“I do it” Focused Instruction Guided Instruction “We do it” “You do it together” Collaborative “You do it alone” Independent STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY A Structure for Instruction that Works (c) Frey & Fisher, 2008

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**Purpose = Expectations**

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**TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY**

Focused Instruction “I do it” Guided Instruction “We do it” “You do it together” Collaborative “You do it alone” Independent STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY A Structure for Instruction that Works (c) Frey & Fisher, 2008

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**focuses on student learning, The established purpose rather than an**

activity, task, or assignment.

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**Which are Learning Goals?**

Students will successfully complete the exercises in the back of chapter 3. Students will create a metaphor representing the food pyramid. Students will be able to determine subject/verb agreement in a variety of simple, compound, and complete sentences. Students will understand the defining characteristics of fables, fairy tales, and tall tales. Students will investigate the relationship between speed of air flow and lift provided by an airplane wing. 1, 2, and 5 are activities or assignments 3 and 4 are learning goals.

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**Which are Learning Goals?**

Students will successfully complete the exercises in the back of chapter 3. Students will create a metaphor representing the food pyramid. Students will be able to determine subject/verb agreement in a variety of simple, compound, and complete sentences. Students will understand the defining characteristics of fables, fairy tales, and tall tales. Students will investigate the relationship between speed of air flow and lift provided by an airplane wing. 1, 2, and 5 are activities or assignments 3 and 4 are learning goals.

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**Students understand the relevance**

of the established purpose.

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Relevance requires… …making connections between the subject and its application outside of the classroom walls.

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**…opportunities to learn about oneself as a learner.**

Relevance requires… …opportunities to learn about oneself as a learner.

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**… learning for learning’s sake.**

Relevance requires… … learning for learning’s sake.

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**TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY**

Focused Instruction “I do it” Guided Instruction “We do it” “You do it together” Collaborative “You do it alone” Independent STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY A Structure for Instruction that Works (c) Frey & Fisher, 2008

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**Modeling Why? Humans mimic or imitate**

Students need examples of the type of thinking required Facilitates the use of academic language

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Thinking Aloud in Math Background knowledge (e.g., When I see a triangle, I remember that the angles have to add to 180.) Relevant versus irrelevant information (e.g., I’ve read this problem twice and I know that there is information included that I don’t need.) Selecting a function (e.g., The problem says ‘increased by’ so I know that I’ll have to add.) Setting up the problem (e.g., The first thing that I will do is … because …) Estimating answers (e.g., I predict that the product will be about 150 because I see that there are 10 times the number.) Determining reasonableness of an answer (e.g., I’m not done yet as I have to check to see if my answer is makes sense.) Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Anderson, H. (2010). Thinking and comprehending in the mathematics classroom (pp ). In K. Ganske & D. Fisher (Eds.), Comprehension across the curriculum: Perspectives and practices, K-12. New York: Guilford.

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**The sum of one-fifth p and 38 is as much as twice p.**

Okay, I’ve read the problem twice and I have a sense of what they’re asking me. I see the term sum, so I know that I’m going to be adding. I know this because sum is one of the signal words that are used in math problems. I also know that when terms are combined, like one-fifth p, they are related because they make a phrase ‘one-fifth of p’ so I’ll write that 1/5 p. The next part says and 38, so I know that I’ll be adding 38 to the equation. Now my equation reads 1/5p But I know that’s not really an equation. I know from my experience that there has to be an equal sign someplace to make it an equation. Oh, they say as much as which is just a fancier way of saying equal to. So, I’ll add the equal sign to my equation: 1/5p + 38 = . And the last part is twice p. And there it is again, one of those combined phrases like one-fifth p, but this time twice p. So I’ll put that on the other side of the equation: 1/5p + 38 = 2p. That’s all they’re asking me to do. For this item, I just need to set up the equation. But I know that I can solve for p and I like solutions. I know that you can solve for p as well. Can you do so on your dry erase boards?

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**Modeling Comprehension**

Inference Summarize Predict Clarify Question Visualize Monitor Synthesize Evaluate Connect

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**Word Solving Context clues**

Word parts (prefix, suffix, root, base, cognates) Resources (others, Internet, dictionary)

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**Using Text Structure Informational Texts Narrative Texts**

Problem/Solution, Compare/Contrast, Sequence, Cause/Effect, Description Narrative Texts Story grammar (plot, setting, character) Dialogue Literary devices

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**Using Text Features Headings Table of contents Captions Glossary**

Illustrations Charts Graphs Bold words Table of contents Glossary Index Tables Margin notes Italicized words

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