Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Astronautics Sissejuhatus kosmonautikasse Vladislav Pustõnski 2009 – 2012 Tallinn University of Technology."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Astronautics Sissejuhatus kosmonautikasse Vladislav Pustõnski 2009 – 2012 Tallinn University of Technology
2 Brief history of Rocketry & Astronautics Ancient use of rocket propulsion Around 360 BC: demonstration of reaction principle by Architas (ancient Greek): a water-filled clay figure of pigeon with holes, when water was boiling, the figure moved due to escaping vapor. 9 th – 13 th centuries, controversially, in China: use gunpowder for fireworks and fire arrows. Later in Korea: hwacha – multi-launch rocket system. 13 th century: Mongols acquire Chinese technology, Arabs acquire it from Mongols. Beg 14 th : first mention of rockets launch from tubes (Jean Froissart, France), ancestors of bazooka, first mention of surface torpedo (Joanes de Fontana, Italy) 1379: first known use of the word rochetta, by Muratori (Italy), applied to certain fireworks Around 1500: Wan Hu ascribed space travel on a chair with 47 rockets attached and lightened with fuse. Obviously an urban legend first appeared in English in mid 20 th ! Mid 16 th : first description of multistage rocket by Conrad Haas (Austria) 1650: “Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima” – artillery manual by Kazimierz Siemienovicz, detailed constructions of rockets, its parts and types: multistage rockets, batteries of rockets, stabilizers etc. 1687: theoretical basis for the rocket motion, by Isaac Newton, “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica”. The Third Law of Motion, the Law of Universal Gravitation.
3 Later military and civilian developments 1792: successful use of rockets with iron barrels (the Anglo-Mysore wars), by Tipu Sultan. Rockets: iron tubes ~20 cm long ~5 cm diameter with black gunpowder, attached to ~1,2 m long bamboo rods. Weight ~0,5 kg, firing distance ~1 km. Elevation angle calculated from the rocket diameter and the distance to target. 1807: under the impression by Mysorean rockets, “A Concise Account of the Origin and Progress of the Rocket System” by William Congreve, as a result of Royal Arsenal research and development. 1813: ideal rocket equation (Tsiolkovsky’s equation) derived in “A treatise on the motion of rockets and an essay on naval gunnery” by W.Moore. Rediscovered independently by Tsiolkovsky and Meshchersky in 1897. 1801 – 1850s: Congreve rockets. Cylindrical-conic iron cases, attached to poles, later added base plate with threaded holes. Different sizes, masses 1.5 – 10 kg. The largest were most widely used, guiding pole ~5 m. Launch distance: more than 3 km. Different warheads: explosive, incendiary, shrapnel. Used mostly together with conventional artillery. Destructive power was small due to low accuracy and reliability, served mostly as psychological weapon. Served in the Napoleonic Wars, in the Britain-US War of 1812. Rockets were used in the battle of Waterloo in 1815, rocket brigades were created by several nations, i.e. in Russia. Congreve rockets were applied as rescue rockets to fire from ships to land with an attached rope. 1844: Improved Congreve rocket design by Hale. Guidestick removed, rockets were spin-stabilized by fraction of thrust deflected apart (various designs used: cant holes, curved vanes etc.) Improved accuracy, mass up to 30 kg. Used by US in the wars with Mexico, by Britain in the Crimea campaign.
4 Later military and civilian developments 1865: two-stage Boxer rockets to carry rope from a ship to land, consisted of two cartridges separated by quick-burning gunpowder. Stabilized by pole, weight ~3 kg. Distance up to 1 km. Used until mid 20 th. Concept of using rockets for rescue lines 1865 by Trengrouse. Second half of 18 th (from beg 1821 th ): whaling rockets – rocket-powered harpoons launched from bazooka-type tube. 1895 (not authenticated): first liquid-fueled rocket engine, powered with nitrogen tetroxide and gasoline, thrust ~90 kg.
5 Fundamental developments of the early era 1903, 1911: Konstantin Tsiolkovsky’s work “Issledovanie mirovykh prostranstv reaktivnymi rriborami” (Exploration Of Space With Rocket Devices). Rockets are demonstrated to be devices to send man into space and to go to other planets, idea of liquid-fueled engine, LH2/LOX propellant proposed. Later, in 1910 th, 1920 th : multistage rocket concepts, fuel transfer between stages, ablative and regenerative cooling, etc. Beg 20 th : Robert Goddard’s research on liquid propellants, patents of thrust chamber, nozzle, propellant feed system, multistage rockets. Ideas of spaceflights. 1910 th : beginning of studies and experiments on automatic guidance. Kettering Bug – gyro and aneroid guided airplane missile, the ancestor of winged rockets. 1920: Hermann Oberth’s book “Die Rakete Zu Den Planetenraumen” (The Rocket Into Planetary Space) – theoretical work on rocketry, effects of space influence to human body discussed. Later on: experiments with liquid propellants, experiments with engines, theoretical studies of space travel and work in space. 1923, 1929: “Wege Zur Raumschiffahrt” (The Road To Space Travel). Collaborated with von Braun during WWII at V-2 project. March 16, 1926: first liquid-fueled rocket by Goddard. Length 3 m, gasoline/LOX, pressure-fed. Altitude ~12 m, distance ~60 m. In the following years Goddard tested more and more innovative rocket devices, including gyro-controlled blast vanes, pressure equalizers, parachute systems with timers. 1920 th : experiments with various rocket-powered devices: cars, rail cars, airplains etc.
6 1931: Group of Study of Reactive Motion (GIRD) is organized in USSR, work on rocket engines and rocket-powered devices led by F.Tsander, S.Korolyov, P.Glushko, M.Tikhonravov and others. 1933: first liquid-fueled Soviet rocket (GIRD-09) 1930 th : Work on rockets in USSR (GIRD) and Germany (Wernher von Braun, J.Winkler, H.A.Huckel etc.) 1933: Magdeburg project (Germany), a project of manned rocket. British Interplanetary Society founded. 1933/34: Aggregate rocket family by von Braun after he joined Wehrmacht (under direction of Dornberger, at Kummersdorf). A1 and A2 rockets built (alcohol 75%/ LOX, pressure fed, regenerative cooling, 3 kN thrust, gyroscope stabilized). 1937: German rocket tests shifted to Peenemünde, Baltic Coast. A3 rocket tests (3 failures due to inertial guidance system imperfections). Launch mass ~750 kg. 1937/38: multiple rocket launchers introduced in the army of USSR (Katyusha). Projectiles with solid fuel, launched from mobile platforms, trucks and airplanes. Projectile mass ~40 kg, warhead mass ~20 kg, range ~8.5 km (RS-132). 14 to 48 ramps on one launch platform. 1940: rocket glider RP-318 test flight in USSR. Developed under the guidance of S.P.Korolyov. Glider was powered by liquid-fueled rocket engine (nitric acid/kerosene, thrust ~1/4 kN).
7 The Second World War Mid 1944: V-1 (for Vergeltungswaffe – vengeance weapon), or buzz bomb, cruise missile fired against London and Antwerp. Weight ~ 2 tons, pulse jet engine, speed ~640 km/h, range ~250 km, warhead ~850 kg. Launched from ramp using catapult. Guided by gyrocompass-based autopilot, countdown timer used anemometer. Sep 1944 (first successful test 1942): V-2 (designed as A4), first ballistic missile. Von Braun’s development. Weight ~12.5 tons, length ~14 m, diameter 1.65 m, wingspan ~3.6 m. Warhead ~1 ton. Propellant (~8.8 tons): alcohol 75%/LOX, range 320 km, altitude ~90 km (up to 210 km in a vertical launch). Regenerative cooling, turbopump driven by hydrogen peroxide H2O2. Guided by rudders on the wings and graphite vanes introduced to the exhaust jet. Guidance system based on two free gyros. Distance controlled by engine cut-off (by radio, on-board accelerometers or integrators). Launched from fixed platforms or transported by trucks. 1940 th : various design concepts, like two-stage intermediate-range ballistic missiles (A9/A10) and ICBM capable to reach New York; Antipodal Bomber by Sanger, rocket-propelled glider skipping along the upper atmosphere. Other rockets: Rheinbote – 4-stage solid-fueled rocket, weight ~1.7 tons; Nebelwerfer – solid-fueled missile, launched from multiple-rocket launchers (5-6 missiles each), Panzerfaust – bazooka-like anti-tank weapon; surface-to-air, air-to- surface, air-to-air rocket projectiles. 1944 (first flight 1941): Messerschmitt Me 163, jet-assisted take-off aircraft, liquid- fueled engine, speed ~1000 km/h. Germany
8 Other nations Russia: Katyusha. USA: bazooka, rocket-powered grenade; barrage rockets, surface-to-air, air-to- surface rocket projectiles; jet-assisted take-off (JATO) developments. Great Britain, Japan: barrage rockets and various types of rocket-powered projectiles.
9 Post-war progress in the USSR Mar 1945: Soviet troops enter Penemünde. May 1945: Penemünde leaders (together with von Braun) surrender to US troops. Mittelwerk underground V-2 factory near Nordhausen was first siezed by Americans, when by Russians; rockets, details, equippement evacuated as trophies. Among German specialists captured by Soviet troops were Grötrupp, Magnus, Hoch, altogether about 150. Thrust of Soviet liquid-fueled experimental engines: up to 1,5 tons, thrust of V-2 engine: 27 ton, industrial production. From mid 1945: comprehensive studies of German rocket legacy by Soviet engineeres. Rabe and Nordhausen institutes formed, tests of V-2 engines began (noticeble role of Arvid Pallo, specialist with Estonian roots). NII-88 formed. 1946: NII-88 formed. End 1947: first rebuilt V-2 launches in USSR in Kapustin Yar. End 1948: first R-1 (Soviet replica of V-2) launched. End 1949: first R-2 launched. Improved design of R-1. Range 600 km, warhead separated before atmospheric reentry, propellant tank as principle bearing structure, radio guidance. Last Soviet missile based on German design. Beg 1950: R-3 missile project. Projected range ~3000 km. Dropped in favor of ICBM R-7. ~1953: Ideas to use rocket missiles as nuclear weapon carriers. Beg 1953: Government Decree to work out a two-stage ICBM, range 8000 km, launch weight 170 tons, warhead weight 3 tons.
10 May 1954: Government Decree to build ICMB for thermonuclear warhead, range 8000 km, warhead weight ~5,5 tons. 1955: R-5 introduced. Launch weight ~30 tons, range 1200 km, combined (autonomous/radio) guidance system. The first rocket with nuclear warhead (R- 5M). The first test with nuclear warhead beg 1956. Jun 2, 1955: Baikonur launching site founded (railroad station Tyuratam; Baikonur sity is ~400 km apart). 1957: Tactical R-11 missile (Scud, first test flight 1953). Non-cryogenic oxidizer (kerosene/nitric acid), R-11FM modification for submarines (first test flight 1955). Motifs: US had got airbases in Western Europe which made USSR territory reachable for heavy bombers with nuclear weapon; US territory was unreachable for USSR aviation. Long-range rocket was the only means to deliver a nuclear bomb. 1955: theoretical drawing approved by Korolyov. 1956: first core stages and boosters built for tests. March 1957: first R-7 built for pre-launch tests. May 15, 1957: first launch. In-flight failure due to problems with one of the side boosters. Aug 21, 1957: first successful launch, range 6000 km. Two stages: parallel staging, 4 strap-on boosters attached to a core stage. Fuel tankage depletion system on the core stage. Launch mass 280 tons. Steering: to decrease impulse of aftereffect, steering vernier nozzles on gimbals were added to assist steering vanes (which were later removed at all). R-7 (8K71, “Semyorka”)
11 Engines: 5 4-chamber engines (80 – 90 tons of thrust) + 12 additional steering chambers & nozzles. To avoid ignition in space, all engines ignited at launch. Launch facilities: pad eliminated, sophisticated suspension system made to bear weight and wind loads. 4 trusses fall aside as thrust exceeds weight. Jul 31, 1957 – Dec 31, 1958: The International Geophysical Year. Beg 1956: Government Decree to launch first satellite (Object D, mass ~1200 kg) End 1956: Korolyov proposes to launch a satellite with a simplest design (PS “Prosteyshiy sputnik”, mass ~100 kg) during launch tests of R-7 in April-May 1957. Mar 1957: US intelligence estimates USSR progress in rockets. R-1,-2,-5 described in detail. Existence of R-7 revealed, but parameters remained unknown. Launch weights and warhead masses downestimated, accuracy overestimated. Satellite launch is expected by the end of 1957. Mid 1957: transmission wavelengths published in press. October 4, 1957: Launch. Construction: 585-mm polished sphere filled by pure nitrogen at 1,3 bar. 4 antennas (2.4 and 2.9 meters). Contained chemical batteries, temperature regulation system (fan), radio transmitting unit. Emitted beeps. If temperature fall below 0 0 C or exceeded 50 0 C, duration of pulses changed, the same if pressure dropped (which indicated that the satellite had been punctured by a meteorite). Transmission wavelengths 7.5 m and 15 m, beeps and pauses 0.3 s. Mass ~84 kg. Orbit: Apogee ~940 km from surface, perigee ~215 km from surface, incl. 65 0, period ~96 min, decay January 4, 1958. Active work: 22 days. Visibility: satellite +6 m, launch vehicle 2 nd stage: +1 m. The first artificial satellite (Sputnik-1, Prosteyshiy sputnik, PS)
12 Post-war progress in the US May 1945: 341 railway cars take away from Mittelwerk factory near Nordhausen hardware for ~100 V-2, hardware transferred to New Mexico. Von Braun surrenders to Americans. End 1945: German specialists arrive to Fort Bliss, Texas, where proving ground was established. 1946-47: MX-774 ballistic test missile project by Army Air Corps, predecessor of Atlas ICMB and launch vehicle. Suspended due to Pentagon decision. Long-range missiles were considered impractical, winged technology was preferred (Snark, Navaho etc.). Beg 1946: first V-2 launches in US (White Sands, New Mexico). Upper atmosphere research program. 1948: WAC Corporal rocket added as 2 nd stage: Bumper-WAC. End 1940 th : several small projects by Army and von Braun team (Hermes A1 etc.). 1950: von Braun team moves to the Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama. Ordnance Guidance Missile Center formed. Beg 1950 th : beginning of Redstone rocket development. V-2 ancestor. Weight: ~28 tons, payload: ~3 tons, range: ~300 km, propellant: 75% alcohol/LOX, steering: jet vanes & air rudders. The first launch 1953. Mid 1955: Navy was chosen to launch a satellite during the International Geophysical Year. Sounding rockets were chosen rather than ballistic missiles, since the initiative was considered as scientific. Project Vanguard emerges. End 1955: Demand for joint Army-Navy IRBM, range ~2500 km (Jupiter). The first launch 1957. Launch weight ~49 tons, fuel RP-1/LOX.
13 1956: Jupiter-C 3-stage rocket emerges from the Redstone. Stretched tanks of the Redstone. Hydyne fuel adopted on later versions. 2 upper solid stages. 2 nd stage: cluster of 11 scaled-down Sergeant rocket engines, 3 rd stage: cluster of 3 scaled-down Sergeant engines. Launch weight: 28.5 tons. No guidance system on the upper stages. The upper stage tube was spun-up on a plate with ball bearing before launch, when fired, electric motors spun the tube to compensate thrust imbalance. Juno I – four- stage version of Jupiter C, with 4 th Sergeant-based solid stage atop. Sep 20, 1956: first Jupiter-C (actually Juno I) launch, Cape Canaveral, ~40 kg payload (incl. 14 kg dummy satellite) lifted to 1100 km and accelerated to 7 km/s, range 5300 km. Only 3 stages were activated, the upper stage intentionally not ignited. If 4 th stage activated, a satellite may have been launched. End 1956 : Air Force begins IRBM Thor development (predecessor of Delta launch vehicles). Launch weight ~50 tons. The first successful flight 1957 (range 2400 km), first successful flight as launch vehicle (with Able upper stage) August 1959. Oct 5, 1957: von Braun promises to launch satellite in 60 days. Nov 8, 1957: von Braun ordered to launch satellite. Dec 6, 1957: 3-stage Vanguard first launch (failure on the pad). 1 st stage based on the Viking sounding rocket, 2 nd stage (Able) based on AJ-10 engine (hypergolic propellant, UDMH/nitric acid). Pitch and yaw steering by gimbaled engines, roll by turbopump exhaust. 3 rd stage spin-stabilized. The first payload: TV3, ~1.4 kg. Feb 1, 1958: Explorer 1, first US satellite. Weight ~14 kg. Launched by Juno 1. Van Allen belts discovered.
14 The first successes & achievements Nov 3, 1957: first animal in orbit. Dog Laika, USSR. Satellite weight ~500 kg. Oct 1, 1958: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) founded. Jan 2, 1959: first Sun orbiter: Luna-1, USSR. Intended for the Moon crash-landing. 3-stage version of R-7 used (“Blok E”). Sep 29, 1959: first Moon landing: Luna-2, USSR. Crash-landing Sep 13. Oct 4, 1959: first Moon far side photos: Luna-3, USSR. Film photos scanned on- board and transmitted after Moon ballistic fly-by. Probe mass ~280 kg, closest approach ~6200 km. 29 photos obtained (17 transmitted), ~70% of the far side photographed. Apr 1, 1959: first weather satellite: Tiros 1, US. First Earth TV photos from space. Aug 11, 1960: first object recovered from space: Discoverer XIII, US. Corona reconnaissance satellite project. Capsules recovered in mid-air by an aircraft. Aug 12, 1960: first communication satellite: Echo 1A, US. ~30 m inflated reflecting sphere. Aug 19/20, 1960: first animals returned from space: Sputnik-5, USSR. Belka & Strelka dogs and other animals. Apr 12, 1961: first man in space: Vostok manned spacecraft, USSR. Yu.Gagarin one-orbit flight. May 5, 1961: first US manned suborbital flight. Mercury Freedom 7 with Alan Shepard. Redstone launch vehicle.
15 Feb 20, 1962: first US manned orbital flight. Mercury Friendship 7 with John Glenn. Atlas launch vehicle. Jul 10, 1962: first transaltantic telecast: Telstar 1, US. Aug 11-15, 1962: first collective flight: Vostok-3/4, USSR. A.Nikolaev/P.Popovich. Dec 14, 1962: first planetary fly-by with scientific data transmission: Mariner 2, US. Venus fly-by. Mass ~200 kg, Atlas-Agena rocket. Jun 16, 1963: first woman in space: Vostok-6, USSR. V.Tereshkova. Jul 31, 1964: first close-range Moon photos: Ranger 7, US. Crash-landing, TV transmission of photos during approach. Last photo from ~500 m, ~40 cm resolution. Aug 19, 1964: first geostationary satellite: Syncom 3, US. Mass ~39 kg.
16 Quick growth and The Moon Race May 25, 1961: J.F.Kennedy speech in Congress announcing the programme to send men to the Moon. Oct 12/13 1964: first multi-seater spacecraft: Voskhod, USSR. 3 men in space, first flight without spacesuites. V.Komarov, K.Feoktistov, B.Yegorov. Mar 18, 1965: first space walk: Voskhod-2, USSR. A.Leonov EVA from inflatable airlock, 12 min. Jul 14, 1965: first close-range Martian photos: Mariner 4, US. Aug 11, 1965: first fully successful LH2/LOX launch: Atlas-Centaur, US. Surveyor dummy payload. Dec 4-18, 1965: first two-weeks flight: Gemini VII, US. F.Borman, J.Lovell. Titan II rocket. Feb 3, 1966: first lunar soft-landing: Luna-9, USSR. Probe mass at launch ~1,6 tons, capsule mass ~100 kg, probe cushioned by inflatable airbags. 9 panoramas sent. 4-stage version of R-7 (“Molniya”). Mar 1, 1966: first object on another planet: Venera 3, USSR. Mar 16, 1966: first docking: Gemini VIII, US. N.Armstrong, D.Scott. Apr 3, 1966: first lunar orbiter: Luna-10, USSR. Jun 2, 1966: Surveyor 1, US, soft-land on the Moon. Aug 14, 1966: Lunar Orbiter 1, US, enters the Moon orbit. Apr 24, 1967: first casualty: Soyuz-1, USSR, V.Komarov dies at landing.
17 Oct 18, 1967: first data from another planet: Venera 4, USSR, sends data about composition of Venus’ atmosphere. Nov 9, 1967: Saturn V, US, thefirst launch test (Apollo 4). Mass at lift-off ~2900 tons. Apr 3, 1968: first return from circumlunar space: Zond 5, USSR, lands and rescued after lunar fly-around. Tortoises and other animals onboard. Oct 11, 1968: Apollo 7, US, first manned launch with the lunar spacecraft Apollo. Dec 21-27, 1968: first men near the moon: Apollo 8, US. F.F.Borman, J.A.Lovell, W.A.Anders. Launch vehicle: Saturn V. Spacecraft mass: ~29 tons. 10 orbits around the Moon. Feb 21, 1969: N1, USSR, first launch test of the Soviet lunar rocket. Failure. Jul 20, 1969: first men on the moon: Apollo 11, US. N.Armstrong, E.Aldrin. First manned lunar landing. Spacecraft mass: ~29 tons. 10 orbits around the Moon. Lunar surface time ~22 h, lunar EVA ~2.5 h. Sep 12-24, 1970: first automatic lunar soil sample return: Luna 16, USSR, lunar soft-landing, drilling of 35 cm ~100 g soil sample, lift-off from the Moon and return to the USSR territory. Launch vehicle Proton, mass ~5.6 tons, mass on the Moon ~1.8 tons, return rocket mass ~500 kg, re-entry container ~30 kg. Nov 10, 1970 – Sep 14, 1971: first automatic lunar rover: Luna 17 / Lunokhod-1, USSR. Rover mass ~760 kg. Width & length & height ~2 m, 8 main wheels ~0.5 m each. Distance traveled ~10.5 km in 11 lunar days.
18 Planetary exploration and space stations Dec 15, 1970: first data transmission from Venus surface: Venera-7, USSR. Apr 19, 1971: the launch of first space station: Salyut-1, USSR. Mass ~18 tons. One successful 24-days expedition, G.Dobrovolsky, V.Patsayev, V.Volkov, died at landing. Jul 30, 1971: first car on the Moon: Apollo 15, US. D.Scott, J.Irving drive the lunar rover. Nov 13, 1971: first Mars orbiter: Mariner 9, US. Dec 2, 1971: first Mars landing: Mars-3, USSR. Transmission stopped after 20 sec. May 14, 1973: Skylab, first US space station. Mass ~77 tons. 3 expeditions, duration up to 84 days. Possibility of long-term living in space proved. Intensive solar studies. Mar 29, 1974: first Mercury fly-by: Mariner 10, US. Jun 24, 1974: first military space station: Salyut 3, USSR. Dec 2, 1974: first Jupiter fly-by: Pioneer 10, US. Oct 22, 1975: first photos from Venus surface: Venera 9, USSR. Surface payload ~660 kg. Jul 20, 1976: first photos from Martian surface: Viking 1, US orbiter and lander, mass of the lander on the surface ~570 kg. Sep 29, 1977: Salyut 6, the second generation space station, USSR. 5 long-stay expeditions, 10 short visits, 30 docked spacecraft including 13 cargo supply ships. Sep 1, 1979: first Saturn fly-by: Pioneer 10, US.
19 New era Apr 12, 1981: Space Shuttle first flight: Columbia, US. J.W.Young, R.Crippen, liftoff total weight 2200 tons, orbiter weight at landing ~88 tons. 37 orbits. Mar 1, 1982: first analysis of Venusian soil: Venera-13, USSR. Dec 1984: first balloons on Venus: Vega 1/2, USSR. Dropped surface probes and atmospheric balloons and continued their journey to Halley comet. Jan 1986: first Uranus fly-by: Voyager 2, US. Jan 28, 1986: Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. Challenger exploded ~1 min after liftoff due to malfunction of one its solid rocket boosters. Feb 19, 1986: first module of Mir space station (USSR) launched to space. The final weight of the station was ~125 tons, the total number of modules was 7, regular crew 3 men. About 100 men in total from 12 countries have visited Mir, the record stay for a person keeps 438 days on orbit (V.Polyakov). 28 long-term expeditions. Deorbited on Mar 23, 2001. March, 1986: first comet close encounter. Vegas (USSR), Giotto (ESA), Suisei & Sakigake (Japan) studied Halley comet during its ordinary return to the Sun. May 15, 1987: first launch of Energia, USSR most powerful rocket (LH2/LOX core, 4 kerosene/LOX boosters, launch mass ~2400 tons, LEO payload ~105 tons. Nov 15, 1988: first (and the only) launch of Buran, the Soviet shuttle. Being launched by the expendable launch vehicle, Buran, contrary to Space Shuttle, was the only reusable part of the system; however, Energia, its carrier, could launch not only Buran but other payloads, too.
20 May 4, 1989: Magellan, US, launched from Atlantis to produce detailed radar maps of Venus. Oct 18, 1989: first Jupiter orbiter Galileo, US, launched by Atlantis. Carried also atmospheric entry probe (mass ~340 kg) to parachute during ~1 hour in the atmosphere of the planet relaying data through the orbiter. Placed on the Jupiter orbit on Dec 7, 1995, deorbited and dropped onto the Jupiter on Sep 21, 2003. Aug 25, 1989: first Neptune fly-by: Voyager 2, US. The probe realized the “Great Tour”, having visited the 4 giant planets and used their gravity assists to speed up. Apr 24, 1990: Hubble space telescope, US, deployed by Discovery. Made several revolutions in the modern astronomy. Dec 4, 1996: first rover on the Mars: Pathfinder lander, US, is launched. Small rover named Sojorner is onboard, mass ~10 kg. Soft-landed on Jul 4, 1997, released the rover, which traveled around relaying photos and data through the mother lander. Oct 15, 1997: first Saturn orbiter and Titan probe, Cassini/Huygens, US, launched. Achieved orbit on Jul 1, 2004. Huygens probe soft-landed Titan on Jan 14, 2005, and sent pictures during the descent phase and from the surface. Oct 29, 1998: the oldest man in space: John Glenn, first American to orbit the Earth in 1962 flew again aboard Discovery at his 77. Nov 20, 1998: Zarya, first module of ISS, launched to space by Proton. Apr 28, 2001: first space tourist: Dennis Tito, US, visits ISS aboard Russian Soyuz TM spacecraft. Feb 1, 2003: Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. Columbia was destroyed during atmosphere entry because of its heat protection damaged at launch.
21 Jan, 2004: two Mars Exploration Rovers, US, soft-land on the Mars and begin their journey collecting scientific data, drilling stones and studying the history of the planet. Jul 4, 2005: first comet impact: Deep Impact, US, released the impactor which hit the comet Tempel 1, having provided close-range photos and data from the comet nucleus. The fly-by probe observed the impact place and studied ejecta from the formed crater. Jan 15, 2006: first comet material returned to the Earth: Stardust, US, returned the capsule with dust samples of the Wild 2 comet (comet fly-by Jan 2, 2004). Samples were collected by the collector with aerogel, silicon-based low density solid. Jan 19, 2006: first probe to Pluto: New Horizons, US, sent to its 9-years journey to fly-by Pluto on Jul 14, 2016. Got gravity assistance from Jupiter during its fly-by on Feb 28, 2007. Jun 13, 2010: first asteroid sample return to the Earth: Hayabusa, Japan, launched May 9, 2003, getting a soil sample at the asteroid Itokawa Nov 2005. Samples: very small (~10 micrometers) dust particles. Mar 18, 2011: first Mercury orbiter: MESSENGER, US, launched Aug 3, 2004. Jul 16, 2011: first Vesta orbiter: Dawn, US, launched Sep 27, 2007.
22 Space club Oct 12, 1957: USSR/Russia/Ucraine becomes the first member of the Space Club after the launch of the first satellite Sputnik 1, mass ~80 kg. Launch vehicle R-7. Feb 1, 1958: US enters the Club with Juno 1, mass ~14 kg, launched by Juno 1. Nov 26, 1965: France with Astérix becomes the 3 rd Space Club member. Satellite mass ~42 kg, launched by 3-stage Diamant A from Hammaguir, Algeria. Feb 11, 1970: Japan sends Osumi (mass ~24 kg) to space aloft Lambda 4S 4-stage full-solid rocket. Apr 24, 1970: China follows Japan with Dong Fang Hong I (mass ~173 kg) launched by Long March I 3-stage rocket. Oct 28, 1971: Great Britain launches Prospero satellite (~66 kg) in the last launch of Black Arrow 3-stage rocket. Dec 24, 1979: European Ariane 1 3-stage rocket boosts to orbit CAT-1 test payload (mass ~1.6 tons). Jul 18, 1980: Indian 4-stage full-solid SLV rocket satellite launches to orbit 35-kg Rohini 1B experimental satellite. Sep 19, 1988: Israel enters Space Club with the launch of Ofeq 1 (mass ~150 kg) aloft 3-stage full-solid Shavit rocket. Satellite is retrograde so that launch debris would not land on neighbor countries. Oct 15, 2003: China sends its first man Yang Liwey to orbit aboard Shenzhou 5 spacecraft launched by Long March 2F rocket. Oct 12, 2005: China sends two men to space aboard Shenzhou 6 in a 5-day mission.
23 Sept 27, 2008: Chinese Zhai Zhigang realizes a 20-minute space walk from Shenzhou 7 spacecraft, which was launched on Sept 27, 2008 with 3 men onboard. Feb 2, 2009: Iran sends Omid satellite to space with Safir launch vehicle. Probable nearest members of the Space Club: Brasil, South Corea, North Corea.
Fire arrows & hwacha Hwacha: korean mobile wood-made launch pad for fire arrows Fire arrow: bamboo stick with a paper barrel with gunpowder, optional grenade Chinese soldier launches fire arrow
Congreve rockets Congreve-type rockets An example of the Congreve rockets O! say can you see by the dawn's early light What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming. Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming. And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? …….. US National Anthem (by Francis Scott Key) Key was a witness of the attack of the British battleship Erebus against Fort McHenry in Baltimore on September 13 and 14, 1814. No serious damage during the siege, 4 deaths.
Goddard’s first rocket Goddard near the frame with his first liquid- fueled rocket Scheme of the rocket
Wernher von Braun 1912-1977 H.Oberth (center), von Braun (to the right). ABMA, 1956 Von Braun (in the center, not wearing Nazi’s uniform) Wernher von Braun
Katyusha Katyusha on BM-13 gearKatyusha volley RS-82 missile on a LaGG-3 fighter
V-2 ballistic rocket Launch preparations V-2 scheme This third day of October, 1942, is the first of a new era in transportation, that of space travel... Walter Dornberger, speech at Peenemünde, October 3, 1942 V-2 launches
R-7 ICBM/launch vehicle R-7 ICBM before launch R-7 “Sputnik” version RD-107, booster engine (two small steering engins are seen in front)
Sputnik-1 (PS) The inside of PS One of the first drawings PS with a technician PS launch
Redstone / Jupiter-C / Juno I Juno I launches Explorer 1Redstone launch Jupiter-C and R-7 on the same scale
Vanguard / TV3 / Explorer 1 Explorer 1 TV3 Vanguard launch
Luna-1: first Sun orbiter Luna-1 probe atop Blok E under the nose cone Luna-1 Sun orbiter
First man in space Vostok capsule after landing Gagarin in the spacecraft Vostok and its launch vehicle Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin
Mercury spacecraft Launch of Mercury on Atlas Mercury capsule drawing Capsule recovery
First space walk A.Leonov in space A.Leonov and P.Belyaev EVA from the inflatable airlock
Luna-9 lunar soft-landing Luna-9 on the translunar trajectory Cushioning with airbags Capsule Fragment of a panorama
Gemini spacecraft Titan II launches Gemini Gemini VI in orbit
42 N1-L3, Soviet lunar program Lunar rocket N1 Assembly of N1Lunar orbital vehicle Lunar landing vehicle
Lunokhod-1 Luna-17 platform viewed from the rover On of the panoramas
Viking probes to the Mars Vining orbiter with the attached lander (inside the heat-protecting shell below) Viking1 martian panorama Viking lander (drawing)
Voyager 2 deep space probe Voyager 2 spacecraft Neptune Erupting volcano on Jupiter’s satellite Io Neptune’s satellite Triton
International Space Station ISS, view from space. The Earth is on the background Inside ISS ISS assembling works (astronaut on the module Columbus)